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    Mongolia Index 2005

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    Mongolia Economy - 2005

      Economy - overview:
      Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth due to reform embracing free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000, 2001, and 2002 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth improved from 2002 at 4% to 2003 at 5%, due largely to high copper prices and new gold production, with the government claiming a 10.6% growth rate for 2004 that is unconfirmed. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily impacted by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy. The actual size of this grey - largely cash - economy is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally constitute a sizeable portion. Money laundering is growing as an accompanying concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on very favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.

      purchasing power parity - $5.332 billion (2004 est.)

      GDP - real growth rate:
      10.6% according to official estimate (2004 est.)

      GDP - per capita:
      purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2004 est.)

      GDP - composition by sector:
      agriculture: 20.6%
      industry: 21.4%
      services: 58% (2003 est.)

      Labor force:
      1.488 million (2003)

      Labor force - by occupation:
      herding/agriculture 42%, mining 4%, manufacturing 6%, trade 14%, services 29%, public sector 5%, other 3.7% (2003)

      Unemployment rate:
      6.7% (2003)

      Population below poverty line:
      36.1% (2004 est.)

      Household income or consumption by percentage share:
      lowest 10%: 2.1%
      highest 10%: 37% (1995)

      Distribution of family income - Gini index:
      44 (1998)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices):
      11% (2004 est.)

      revenues: $582 million
      expenditures: $602 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

      Agriculture - products:
      wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

      construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

      Industrial production growth rate:
      4.1% (2002 est.)

      Electricity - production:
      2.692 billion kWh (2004 est.)

      Electricity - consumption:
      2.209 billion kWh (2004 est.)

      Electricity - exports:
      8.2 million kWh (2004 est.)

      Electricity - imports:
      130.5 million kWh (2004 est.)

      Oil - production:
      542 bbl/day (2004 est.)

      Oil - consumption:
      11,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

      Oil - exports:
      497 bbl/day (2004 est.)

      Oil - imports:
      11,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

      $853 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

      Exports - commodities:
      copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals

      Exports - partners:
      China 50.7%, US 26.3%, Canada 5.3%, UK 4.3%, Russia 4.2% (2004)

      $1 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)

      Imports - commodities:
      machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea

      Imports - partners:
      Russia 31%, China 23.1%, Japan 8.4%, South Korea 6.7% (2004)

      Debt - external:
      $1.191 billion (2004 est.)

      Economic aid - recipient:
      $215 million (2003)

      Currency (code):
      togrog/tugrik (MNT)

      Exchange rates:
      togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.7 (2000)

      Fiscal year:
      calendar year

      NOTE: The information regarding Mongolia on this page is re-published from the 2005 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Mongolia Economy 2005 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Mongolia Economy 2005 should be addressed to the CIA.

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