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359. U.S. District Courts--Offenders Convicted and Sentenced to Prison and Length of Sentence

[For methodology and definitions, see below table]

 
Offenders convicted Offenders convicted Offenders convicted Convicted offenders Convicted offenders Convicted offenders Length of sentence Length of sentence Length of sentence
sentenced to prison sentenced to prison sentenced to prison (months) (months) (months)
Most serious offense
of conviction
1980 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1980 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
 
    Total 1 29,943 44,518 43,550 46,805 47,494 48,946 52,348 53,435 48,678 47,556 53,076 56,570 60,958 13,766 23,579 23,450 27,377 28,659 30,555 34,352 34,844 31,586 31,805 36,373 39,431 43,041 55.2 55.1 54.5 57.2 61.9 62.6 60.6 60.9 60.9 61.2 58.9 58.8
 
Violent offenses 2,134 2,241 2,139 2,180 2,331 2,513 2,942 3,077 2,927 2,658 2,849 3,097 3,078 1,770 1,837 1,733 1,892 2,032 2,260 2,675 2,679 2,443 2,250 2,475 2,696 2,808 126.2 110.7 90.6 89.2 90.7 94.8 88.8 88.2 90.8 90.7 83.4 84.2
Property offenses 10,780 14,349 13,436 13,552 13,593 13,178 14,330 14,758 13,201 13,488 14,027 15,054 11,862 4,630 6,234 5,723 5,974 5,885 6,033 6,699 6,980 6,466 6,746 7,192 7,709 7,114 32.5 31.5 26.0 22.0 21.2 21.8 23.7 25.1 24.9 22.5 22.8 25.4
  Fraudulent offenses 2 6,733 10,443 9,583 9,918 10,127 9,473 10,334 10,764 9,466 9,847 10,506 11,616 9,752 2,825 4,610 4,182 4,400 4,464 4,542 5,148 5,378 4,967 5,258 5,751 6,282 5,860 31.1 31.0 26.1 21.9 20.1 20.3 19.2 20.7 20.2 19.7 20.8 22.3
    Embezzlement. 1,605 1,918 1,775 1,796 1,833 1,759 1,757 1,713 1,311 1,212 1,157 1,092 916 460 551 490 510 520 614 734 650 519 521 521 513 497 22.1 19.6 16.5 17.5 15.5 16.3 12.3 14.3 15.4 15.8 14.3 15.7
    Fraud 3. 3,307 6,588 6,193 6,533 6,881 6,412 7,272 7,824 6,909 7,500 8,222 9,302 7,532 1,384 3,097 2,915 3,028 3,230 3,251 3,749 4,154 3,855 4,183 4,597 5,086 4,584 32.1 32.9 29.8 23.4 21.6 21.1 20.6 22.1 20.9 20.5 21.1 23.3
    Forgery.. 1,180 1,348 1,007 1,019 907 749 732 627 536 330 300 265 147 610 606 459 518 397 361 343 262 197 123 136 116 66 30.6 32.1 18.3 16.9 16.6 18.7 14.9 16.8 16.4 13.4 13.1 17.9
 
  Other offenses 2 4,047 3,906 3,853 3,634 3,466 3,705 3,995 3,994 3,735 3,641 3,521 3,438 2,110 1,805 1,624 1,541 1,574 1,421 1,491 1,551 1,602 1,499 1,488 1,441 1,427 1,254 36.5 32.7 25.7 22.4 24.6 27.6 38.8 39.9 41.9 33.6 31.8 40.3
    Larceny 3,026 3,057 2,964 2,810 2,709 2,917 3,110 2,929 2,728 2,396 2,609 2,547 1,344 1,180 1,125 978 1,036 940 951 921 929 851 754 805 850 693 33.8 27.5 22.7 18.8 17.5 18.6 22.2 25.0 20.5 22.2 21.5 32.6
Drug offenses 2. 5,135 13,423 13,376 15,799 16,311 17,349 18,846 20,458 17,722 16,728 18,557 20,093 20,867 3,675 10,196 10,599 13,306 14,092 15,012 16,757 17,343 14,835 14,067 16,492 17,964 19,280 67.8 71.3 74.9 80.9 85.7 82.9 79.7 80.1 82.5 82.4 79.5 78.8
 
  Possession. 502 2,199 1,815 1,776 1,301 1,163 1,129 1,230 1,308 1,428 1,974 1,937 1,450 115 612 402 474 452 454 423 676 563 900 1,209 1,180 1,267 48.1 13.6 8.1 14.9 21.7 22.1 18.0 22.0 34.0 51.3 62.6 84.2
  Trafficking and
   manufacturing 4,633 11,224 11,561 14,023 15,010 16,186 17,717 19,228 16,414 15,270 16,532 18,121 19,417 3,560 9,584 10,197 12,832 13,640 14,558 16,334 16,667 14,272 13,167 15,283 16,764 18,013 69.1 73.6 77.3 83.1 87.4 84.3 82.2 82.5 85.9 84.8 80.8 78.5
 
Public-order offenses 11,893 14,500 14,593 15,246 15,259 15,906 16,229 15,134 14,825 14,657 17,613 18,180 14,687 3,690 5,312 5,395 6,194 6,650 7,250 8,220 7,833 7,838 8,735 10,206 11,057 12,218 35.5 30.7 27.6 28.3 37.8 28.8 42.1 46.0 46.6 47.5 45.2 47.3
 
  Regulatory offenses 1,828 1,847 1,965 2,024 2,054 2,337 2,196 2,040 1,905 1,629 1,974 1,950 1,187 484 601 640 746 799 884 875 912 876 748 737 782 506 42.1 30.4 24.0 26.7 26.5 8.6 26.8 31.7 28.0 25.8 26.6 27.9
  Other offenses 10,065 12,653 12,628 13,222 13,205 13,569 14,032 13,094 12,920 13,028 15,639 16,230 13,500 3,206 4,711 4,755 5,448 5,851 6,366 7,345 6,921 6,962 7,987 9,469 10,275 11,712 32.2 30.7 28.1 28.5 39.3 40.9 44.1 47.8 48.4 49.1 46.6 48.1
    Weapons 980 1,730 1,803 2,151 2,440 3,136 4,017 3,178 2,879 3,180 3,111 2,916 3,160 578 1,188 1,262 1,647 1,894 2,632 3,500 2,910 2,812 2,813 2,785 2,668 2,914 53.3 52.3 47.1 47.3 63.0 64.6 66.6 81.2 90.9 99.4 101.6 100.6
    Immigration 2,200 2,138 1,851 2,446 2,569 2,306 2,383 2,583 2,588 3,533 5,501 6,523 7,569 1,017 1,355 1,287 1,658 1,876 1,742 1,779 2,099 2,243 3,169 4,492 5,502 6,880 15.2 11.7 9.3 10.5 12.5 15.0 18.8 19.9 21.0 22.1 22.3 26.4
    Tax law violations 4 1,407 1,374 1,429 1,160 1,165 1,048 1,070 1,036 901 787 871 876 752 487 640 629 543 507 434 445 370 329 306 339 346 376 21.1 22.8 25.2 24.3 24.9 22.2 21.1 15.7 17.6 30.3 20.0 18.6
 



1 Total may include offenders for whom offense category could not be determined.
2 Includes offenses not shown separately.
3 Excludes tax fraud.
4 Includes tax fraud.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, annual.

http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/stssent.htm

*Methodology

The data are derived from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Federal Justice Statistics database. The database isconstructed from source files provided by the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys, the Administrative Office of the UnitedStates Courts (AO), the Pretrial Services Agency, the United States Sentencing Commission, and the Federal Bureau ofPrisons. Data represent the calendar year(s) indicated in each table.

Records in the Federal Justice Statistics database are matched according to a statistically weighted combination of names,other personal identifiers, dates of court appearances, types of offenses, and other relevant information contained in the files.Using the matched data files, it is possible to combine information about two or more stages of the processing of a criminalmatter or case, from the prosecutor's decision of whether to file a criminal case, through adjudication, and, if the defendant isconvicted, through prison and/or supervised release.

The unit of analysis is a combination of a person (or corporation) and a matter or case. For example, if a single person isinvolved in three different criminal cases during the time period specified in the table, he or she is counted three times in thetabulation. Similarly, if a single criminal case involves a corporate defendant and four individual defendants, it is counted fivetimes in the tabulation.

The offense classifications in the tables are based on the classification system used by the AO. Specific offenses in the AOclassification are combined to form the BJS categories in the tables. These categories are designed to be as consistent aspossible with BJS publications on State criminal justice systems. Offense categories for tables 5.25, 5.26, 6.43, and 6.68 arebased on offense designations by the Bureau of Prisons. They are similar to the BJS categories but may not be directlycomparable.

Where more than one offense is charged or adjudicated, the most serious offense, the one that may or did result in the mostsevere sentence, is used in the classification. Prisoners are classified according to the offense that bears the longestincarceration sentence. The offense description may change as a case goes through the criminal justice process. Tables indicatewhether charged or adjudicated offenses are used.

Tables from the Federal Criminal Case Processing report describing the number and rate of prosecutions and the results ofmagistrate proceedings include only those cases handled by U.S. attorneys and those matters in which U.S. attorneys providelocal assistance to Department of Justice attorneys in the litigating divisions. Data describing the number and rate ofconvictions, sentencing patterns, incarceration rates, and lengths of sentences imposed and served, include all cases regardlessof the prosecuting agency.

In 1991, the Department of Justice provided U.S. attorneys with lists of cases shown in the data as having remained inactivefor long periods of time, and directed that resolutions be reported to the Docket and Reporting system, if possible. As a result,many cases which had been shown as pending were reported to be declined for prosecution, or were shown as resolved byU.S. magistrates. Statistics for 1991 were substantially affected by these recordkeeping activities.

The availability of particular items of information is affected by the data source. Data on prosecutors' decisions prior to courtfiling are provided for cases investigated by U.S. attorneys, but not for those handled by the Criminal Division of the U.S.Department of Justice. Criminal Division cases enter the data base once they are filed in U.S. District Court, however. Manyitems of social and demographic information come from presentence investigation records or supervision records, and areavailable only for arrested defendants who were convicted and/or began serving a sentence involving supervised release. (Thisparticularly affects sex, race, ethnicity, education, and occupational information.)

Sentencing figures differ from statistics published by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts for the average"regular" sentence imposed. "Regular" sentences exclude two categories of offenders included in the BJS calculations:offenders receiving a "split" sentence (5 days through 6 months followed by probation) and offenders sentenced under 18U.S.C. 4205(b)(1) and (b)(2) (where a maximum term is set accompanied by no or a small minimum).Time served in prison is the number of months from the prisoner's arrival into jurisdiction of the Bureau of Prisons until firstrelease from prison, plus any jail time served and credited. The calculation is the same as that currently used by the Bureau ofPrisons. Because other publications may include different groups of prisoners, calculate time served differently, or use adifferent offense classification, these data may differ from estimates of time served in previous publications by the Bureau ofPrisons or in publications based on other data sources.

Time served reported in table 5.26 is not directly comparable to that in previous Federal Criminal Case Processing and theCompendium of Federal Justice Statistics reports. The methodology in this report uses new information to identify prisoncommitment dates and account for jail credits. In previous reports jail credits were overestimated in some cases.

These data are designed to permit the user to make valid comparisons of numbers within each table and to comparepercentage rates across tables. The total numbers of subjects that are based on records linked between two files are generallyless than the total number of records in either source file. Accordingly, comparisons of absolute numbers across two or moretables, or between these data and other data sources, are not necessarily valid.*Definitions of terms

Definitions of offense categories describe all offenses included in each category.

Drug offenses--possessing or trafficking in (distributing, importing, or manufacturing) controlled substances. Also furnishing offraudulent or false information concerning prescriptions as well as any other unspecified drug-related offense.

Embezzlement--fraudulently misapplying property by a person to whom such property has been entrusted or into whosehands it has lawfully come where offense is committed by bank officers or employees; officers or employees of the PostalService; officers of lending, credit, or insurance institutions; any officer or employee of a corporation or association engaged incommerce as a common carrier; court officers of the U.S. courts; or officers or employees of the United States. Embezzling,stealing, or knowingly converting to one's own use or the use of another or without authority selling, conveying, or disposing ofany money, property, records, or thing of value to the United States or any department thereof.

Forgery--falsely and with intent to defraud, making, counterfeiting, altering, or possessing with intent to pass off as genuineany U.S. Postal Service money order; postmarking stamp or impression; obligation or security of the United States; foreignobligation, security, or bank note; contractors' bond, bid, or public record; seal of a court or any department or agency of theU.S. Government; the signature of a judge or court officer; ships' papers; documents on entry of vessels; deed; power ofattorney; customs matters; bond of distilleries; military or naval discharge certificate; coin or bar; and so forth. Also making,possessing, selling, or printing plates or stones for counterfeiting obligations or securities and receiving, possessing, concealing,selling, or disposing of any falsely made securities, tax stamps, or pledges that have crossed a State or the U.S. boundary afterbeing stolen or unlawfully converted.

Fraud--unlawfully depriving a person of his or her property or legal rights through intentional misrepresentation of fact ordeceit other than forgery or counterfeiting. Includes violations of statutes pertaining to lending and credit institutions, the PostalService, interstate wire, radio, television, veterans benefits, allotments, bankruptcy, marketing agreements, commodity credit,the Securities and Exchange Commission, railroad retirement, unemployment, Social Security, false personation, citizenship,passports, conspiracy, and claims and statements, excluding tax fraud. The category excludes fraud involving tax violations thatare shown in a separate category under "Public-order, other offenses."

Immigration offenses--offenses involving illegal entrance into the United States, illegally reentering after being deported,willfully failing to deport when so ordered, or willfully remaining beyond days allowed on conditional permit. Falselyrepresenting oneself to be a citizen of the United States or counterfeiting any visa, permit, or other document to enter theUnited States as well as violating any of the provisions for travel of citizens or aliens during war or national emergency. Alsobringing in or harboring any aliens not duly admitted by an immigration officer.

Larceny--taking and carrying away with intent to steal any personal property of another, within the special maritime andterritorial jurisdiction of the United States. Stealing, possessing, converting to one's own use, or illegally selling or disposing ofanything of value to the United States or any of its departments or agencies or any property made or being made undercontract for the United States or any of its departments or agencies. Stealing anything of value (in excess of $100) from abank, the Postal Service, or any interstate or Foreign shipments by carrier. Receiving or possessing stolen property or pirateproperty. Stealing or obtaining by fraud any funds, assets, or property that are the subject of a grant, contract, or other form ofassistance, whether received directly or indirectly, from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration or that belong to orare entrusted to the custody of an Indian tribal organization. This offense category excludes the transportation of stolenproperty.

Most serious offense--the offense with the greatest potential penalty. For Federal prisoners, the offense with the longestterm of incarceration actually imposed.

Offense--violation of U.S. criminal law. Where more than one offense is charged, the offense with the greatest potentialpenalty is reported.

Other property offenses--offenses that involve the destruction of property moving in inter-State or foreign commerce in thepossession of a common or contract carrier. The malicious destruction of Government property, or injury to U.S. postalproperty such as mailboxes or mailbags. Trespassing on timber and Government lands is also included in this category ofoffenses.

Other public-order offenses--violations of laws pertaining to abortion; bigamy; disorderly conduct on the U.S. Capitolgrounds; civil disorder; hunting, trapping, or fishing on Indian lands or military areas and zones; and obscene or harassingtelephone calls. Included in "public-order, non-regulatory offenses."

Other regulatory offenses--violations of civil rights, election laws, the Communication Act (including wire tapping and wireinterception), contempt, laws regarding congressional contempt, custom laws (except narcotics and liquor), importation ofinjurious animals and birds, interstate commerce (the Connally Act, Hot Oil Act, transportation or importation ofprison-made goods, and the Railroad and Transportation Act), maritime and shipping laws, laws regarding stowaways, theFederal Boat Safety Act of 1971, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, U.S. postal laws (excluding injury to postalproperty), intimidation of witness laws, aircraft regulations, explosives (except in vessels), the Gold Acts, train wrecking, andany other regulatory offenses not listed above.

Possession--acquiring a controlled substance by misrepresentation or fraud, attempting or conspiring to possess, or simplepossession of a controlled substance in schedules I-V (as defined by 21 U.S.C. 812). Also possession of a controlledsubstance in schedule I or II or a narcotic drug in schedule III or IV on board a vessel of the United States or vessels withincustom waters of the United States or by any citizen of the United States on board a vessel. Possessing any punch, die, plate,stone, or any other thing designed to reproduce the label upon any drug or container is an offense under this category.Distributing a small amount of marijuana for no remuneration is treated as simple possession and, therefore, is included in thisoffense category.Property offenses, fraudulent--property offenses involving the elements of deceit or intentional misrepresentation.Specifically includes embezzlement, fraud (excluding tax fraud), forgery, and counterfeiting.

Property offenses, non-fraudulent-- offenses against property: burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson, transportationof stolen property, and other property offenses (destruction of property and trespassing). These offenses are termed"non-fraudulent" only for the purpose of distinguishing them from the category "property offenses, fraudulent," above.

Public-order, non-regulatory offenses--offenses concerning weapons; immigration; tax law violations (tax fraud); bribery;perjury; national defense; escape; racketeering and extortion; gambling; liquor; mailing or transporting of obscene materials;traffic; migratory birds; conspiracy, aiding and abetting, and jurisdictional offenses; and "other public-order offenses." Theseoffenses are termed "non-regulatory" only for the purpose of distinguishing them from the

Public-order, regulatory offenses--violations of regulatory laws and regulations in agriculture, antitrust, labor law, food anddrug, motor carrier, and other regulatory offenses that are not specifically listed in the category "public-order, non-regulatoryoffenses" above.

Sentence--sanction imposed on a convicted offender. For sentences to incarceration, the maximum time the offender may beheld in custody is reported.

Tax law violations--tax fraud offenses such as income tax fraud; evading or defeating tax; willful failure to file; fraudulentlywithholding an exemption certificate or failing to supply information; counterfeiting any stamps with intent to defraud thecollection or payment of tax; willful failure to collect or pay tax; putting fraudulent or false statements on tax returns; failure toobey summons to produce any papers concerning taxes; preparers of returns disclosing or using any information for anypurpose other than to assist in preparing returns; failing to furnish receipts for employees of tax withheld; failing to furnishinformation relating to certain trusts, annuity, and bond purchase plans; and not obtaining a license for a business that makes aprofit from foreign items. Also included in this offense category are violations of excise and wagering tax laws and other lawsfrom the Internal Revenue Service title.

Trafficking--importing any controlled substance in schedule I, II, III, IV, or V (as defined by 21 U.S.C. 812).Manufacturing, distributing, selling, or possessing with intent to manufacture, distribute, or sell a controlled substance or acounterfeit substance. Exporting any controlled substance in schedules I-V. Manufacturing or distributing a controlledsubstance in schedule I or II for purposes of unlawful importation. Making or distributing any punch, die, plate, stone, or anyother thing designed to reproduce the label upon any drug or container or removing or obliterating the label or symbol of anydrug or container. Obtaining a prescription of a controlled substance in schedule III or IV without a written or oralprescription. Distributing for reasons other than medical a controlled substance in schedule V. Illegally crossing the border ifthe individual is addicted to or using drugs or has been convicted of any violation of narcotics or marijuana laws.

Violent offenses--threatening, attempting, or actually using physical force against a person. Includes murder and nonnegligentmanslaughter, negligent manslaughter, assault, robbery, rape, other sex offenses (some of which may be nonviolent), kidnapping,and threats against the President. (See specific offenses.)

Weapons violations--violations of any of the provisions of sections 922 and 923 of title 18 concerning the manufacturing,importing, possessing, receiving, and licensing of firearms and ammunition. Manufacturing, selling, possessing, or transporting(within any territory or possession of the United States, within Indian country, or within the special maritime and territorialjurisdiction of the United States) any switchblade knife. Engaging in importing, manufacturing, or dealing in firearms if notregistered with the secretary in the Internal Revenue Service District in which the business is conducted or not having paid aspecial occupational tax. Carrying on the U.S. Capitol grounds or within U.S. Capitol buildings any firearm, dangerousweapon, explosive, or incendiary device. *

https://allcountries.org/uscensus/359_u_s_district_courts_offenders_convicted.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright 2019 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.