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396. Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recovery, and Disposal

[In millions of tons (87.8 represents 87,800,000), except as indicated. Covers post-consumer residential and commercial solid wastes which comprise the major portion of typical municipal collections. Excludes mining, agricultural and industrial processing, demolition and construction wastes, sewage sludge and junked autos and obsolete equipment wastes. Based on material-flows estimating procedure and wet weight as generated; for description, see below table]

 
Item and material 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
 
Waste generated 87.8 103.4 121.9 128.0 151.5 164.4 170.7 178.1 184.2 191.4 205.2 204.6 208.9 211.8 214.2 211.4 209.2 216.4 220.2
  Per person per day (lb.). 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.5
Materials recovered 5.9 6.8 8.6 9.9 14.5 16.4 18.3 20.1 23.5 29.9 33.6 37.0 40.6 43.8 50.8 54.9 57.3 59.4 62.2
  Per person per day (lb.). 0.18 0.19 0.23 0.25 0.35 0.38 0.42 0.45 0.52 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3
 
Combustion for energy recovery (NA) 0.2 0.4 0.7 2.7 7.6 9.6 16.0 24.5 27.1 29.7 30.1 30.5 30.9 31.2 34.5 36.1 36.7 37.0
  Per person per day (lb.). (NA) 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.17 0.22 0.36 0.59 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8
Combustion without energy recovery. 27.0 26.8 24.7 17.8 11.0 4.1 3.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.2 1.6 1.3 1.0 (1) (1) (1)
  Per person per day (lb.). 0.82 0.75 0.66 0.45 0.27 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 (1) (1) (1)
Landfilled, other disposal. 54.9 69.6 88.2 99.7 123.3 136.4 139.8 140.0 135.1 132.4 139.7 135.3 135.7 135.5 130.9 120.9 115.8 120.4 121.1
  Per person per day (lb.). 1.7 2.1 2.4 2.5 3.0 3.13 3.18 3.15 3.02 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.5
 
PERCENT CHANGE FROM
PRIOR YEAR
Waste generated (NA) 15.1 15.2 4.8 15.5 7.8 3.7 4.2 3.3 3.8 6.4 -0.3 2.1 1.4 1.1 -1.3 -1.0 3.5 1.8
  Per person per day . (NA) 11.3 8.3 -0.3 10.7 3.2 2.8 3.2 2.7 2.8 8.1 -1.4 1.0 0.3 0.2 -2.2 -1.9 2.5 0.8
Materials recovered (NA) 13.2 20.9 13.1 31.7 11.6 10.4 9.0 14.5 21.4 8.3 10.3 9.5 8.0 15.9 8.2 4.4 3.6 4.7
  Per person per day . (NA) 5.3 17.4 8.0 28.6 7.9 9.5 6.7 13.5 21.2 2.8 9.1 8.3 6.9 14.8 7.2 3.4 2.6 3.7
 
Combustion for energy recovery (NA) (NA) 50.0 42.9 74.1 64.5 20.8 40.0 34.7 9.6 2.8 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.1 10.7 4.5 1.7 0.8
  Per person per day . (NA) (NA) 50.0 0.0 66.7 64.7 22.7 38.9 39.0 1.7 6.0 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.1 9.7 3.5 0.7 -0.1
Combustion without energy recovery. (NA) -0.7 -8.5 -38.8 -61.8 -168.3 -36.7 -50.0 -100.0 50.0 10.1 -1.8 -1.8 -24.5 -20.2 -23.1 (1) (1) (1)
  Per person per day . (NA) -9.3 -13.6 -46.7 -66.7 -170.0 -42.9 -40.0 -150.0 50.0 17.1 -2.9 -2.9 -25.3 -21.0 -23.8 (1) (1) (1)
Landfilled, other disposal. (NA) 21.1 21.1 11.5 19.1 9.6 2.4 0.1 -3.6 -2.0 3.0 -3.2 0.3 -0.2 -3.4 -7.6 -4.2 3.9 0.6
  Per person per day . (NA) 18.5 13.5 6.7 14.5 5.1 1.6 -1.0 -4.3 -3.1 4.6 -4.2 -0.8 -1.2 -4.3 -8.5 -5.1 2.9 -0.4
 
Percent distribution of generation:
  Paper and paperboard.. 34.1 36.8 36.3 33.6 36.1 37.4 38.4 39.1 38.9 37.6 35.4 34.7 35.5 36.6 37.7 38.6 38.1 38.5 38.2
  Glass.. 7.6 8.4 10.4 10.5 9.9 8.0 7.6 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.4 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.5 5.7
  Metals. 12.0 10.7 11.6 11.2 9.6 8.6 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.1 8.1 7.7 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.7 7.7 7.6
  Plastics.. 0.5 1.4 2.5 3.5 5.2 7.1 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.0 8.3 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.0 8.9 9.4 9.9 10.2
  Rubber and leather.. 2.3 2.5 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1
  Textiles 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 2.1 2.1 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9
  Wood. 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.4 4.4 5.0 5.3 5.5 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.2 5.9 5.8 5.3 4.9 5.2 5.3 5.4
  Food wastes.. 13.9 12.3 10.5 10.5 8.7 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.2 6.9 10.1 10.2 10.1 10.0 10.0 10.3 10.4 10.1 10.0
  Yard wastes.. 22.8 20.9 19.0 19.7 18.2 18.2 17.7 17.4 17.2 18.1 17.1 17.1 16.8 15.7 14.7 14.0 13.3 12.8 12.6
  Other wastes 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.9 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.3


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1 Combustion without energy recovery is no longer available separately.

Source: Franklin Associates, Ltd., Prairie Village, KS, Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1998. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/

* MATERIAL FLOWS METHODOLOGY

The material flows methodology is utilized to generate the estimates above. The crucial first step is making estimates of the generation of the materials and products in MSW.

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Data on domestic production of materials and products were compiled using published data series. U.S. Department of Commerce sources were used where available, but in several instances more detailed information on production of goods by end use is available from trade associations. The goal is to obtain a consistent historical data series for each product and/or material.

CONVERTING SCRAP The domestic production numbers were then adjusted for converting or fabrication scrap generated in the production processes. Examples of these kinds of scrap would be clippings from plants that make boxes from paperboard, glass scrap (cullet) generated in a glass bottle plant, or plastic scrap from a fabricator of plastic consumer products. This scrap typically has a high value because it is clean and readily identifiable, and it is almost always recovered and recycled within the industry that generated it. Thus, converting/fabrication scrap is not counted as part of the postconsumer recovery of waste.

ADJUSTMENTS FOR IMPORTS/EXPORTS In some instances imports and exports of products are a significant part of MSW, and adjustments were made to account for this.

DIVERSION Various adjustments were made to account for diversions from MSW. Some consumer products are permanently diverted from the municipal waste stream because of the way they are used. For example, some paperboard is used in building materials, which are not counted as MSW. Another example of diversion is toilet tissue, which is disposed in sewer systems rather than becoming MSW.

In other instances, products are temporarily diverted from the municipal waste stream. For example, textiles reused as rags are assumed to enter the waste stream the same year the textiles are initially discarded.

ADJUSTMENTS FOR PRODUCT LIFETIME Some products (e.g., newspapers and packaging) normally have a very short lifetime; these products are assumed to be discarded in the same year they are produced. In other instances (e.g., furniture and appliances), products have relatively long lifetimes. Data on average product lifetimes are used to adjust the data series to account for this.

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND DISCARDS The result of these estimates and calculations is a material-by-material and product-by-product estimate of MSW generation, recovery, and discards.



http://www.allcountries.org/uscensus/396_municipal_solid_waste_generation_recovery_and.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.