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2. Vital Statistics
3. Health and Nutrition
5. Law Enforcement, Courts
6. Geography and Environment
7. Parks, Recreation, Travel
9. State and Local Government
Finances and Employment
10. Federal Government
Finances and Employment
11. National Defense and
12. Social Insurance and Human
13. Labor Force, Employment,
14. Income, Expenditures, and
16. Banking, Finance, and
17. Business Enterprise
18. Communications and
20. Science and Technology
21. Transportation - Land
22. Transportation - Air
24. Natural Resources
25. Construction and Housing
27. Domestic Trade and
28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
29. Outlying Areas
30. Comparative International
31. Industrial Outlook
32. 1997 Economic Census
Source: U.S. Coast Guard, http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/nmc/response/stats/Summary.htm (accessed 09 February 2000).
* Oil spill statistics for each year are presented in tabular format at the beginning of each section and include the following information: total number of spills and total volume in each category; mean (average), median and maximum spill size; and percentages.
Spill Size - spills are sorted into nine, separate volume ranges (1-100 gallons, 101-1,000 gallons, 1,001-3,000 gallons, 3,001-5,000 gallons, ..., 100,001-1,000,000 gallons, over 1,000,000 gallons).
Waterbody - 223 individual waterbodies (Delaware River, San Francisco Bay, Lower Mississippi River, Gulf of Mexico, Bayou La Batre, etc.) were sorted into nine categories that include the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes, rivers and canals, harbors, bays and sounds, lakes, and other. In past publications, many rivers, harbors, and tributaries were coded so that spills in those waterbodies were represented as having occurred in the ocean or gulf to which they were connected. This is no longer the case. Waterbodies included in each of these categories are listed in Appendix A.
Location - categories include internal/headlands (rivers, harbors, intercoastal waterways, etc.), coastal (territorial waters (0-3 miles)), contiguous zone (3-12 miles), ocean (12-200 miles), ocean general, and other.
Major source and detailed source - 53 listed sources in the detailed source table are sorted into seven broad categories in the major source table. Major sources include tankships, tank barges, all other vessels, facilities, pipelines, all other non-vessel sources, and unknown or not elsewhere classified (NEC). Because the detailed sources are too numerous to represent graphically, only the major source categories are presented graphically.
Vessel/Facility Operation (through 1993 only). - 41 individual, coded operations were sorted into ten categories that were reported as ongoing operations at the time of the spill. They include: pumping bilges, bunkering (refueling), tanker/facility operation, cargo transfer/receiving, movement in congested waterway, lightering, underway/transporting, pipeline, other known operation, or unknown operation. Operations data represents information that may be useful for oil transportation risk assessment. Specific operations within these categories are also listed in Appendix A. After 1993, this table is not provided, because of changes in the data collection system.
Oil Type - 174 different petroleum and non-petroleum oils were sorted into the following six general categories: crude oils, heavy fuel oils (#4, #5, & #6 fuel oils), intermediate fuel oils (diesels, light crudes,) gasoline (automotive and aviation), other petroleum oils (gas-oil, asphalt, etc.), and non-petroleum oils (vegetable oils, coconut oil, etc.).
The passage of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA)provided the U.S. Coast Guard with statutory authority to regulate oil pollution prevention and response activities in United States' waterways. The FWPCA, also known as the Clean Water Act, requires that any discharge of an oil or hazardous substance in a harmful quantity be reported to the "appropriate agency of the United States". Executive Order 11735, dated August 3, 1973, designated the U.S. Coast Guard as the appropriate agency. As a result, the number of spills reported to the Coast Guard increased dramatically. It is from this point that the Coast Guard began building the database, now known as the Marine Safety Management System (MSMS), at Coast Guard Headquarters in Washington, DC.
MSMS data represents discharges reported to the Coast Guard by responsible parties (a requirement of FWPCA), by other private parties, government agencies, or as discovered and reported by Coast Guard personnel. All cases in MSMS fall within Coast Guard jurisdiction, as provided for in the National Contingency Plan (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 300). Included in the file are all reported discharges into U.S. navigable waters, including territorial waters (extending to three miles from the coastline), tributaries, the contiguous zone (extending from three to twelve miles from the coastline), onto shorelines, or into other waters that threaten the marine environment of the United States. Future adjustments will incorporate the new language for the U.S. territorial sea which is now set at twelve nautical miles from the coastline. MSMS has evolved since 1973 to meet Coast Guard requirements for improved data collection, analysis and interpretation capabilities and to facilitate safe, environmentally protective management of the nation's waterways. MSMS is actually a combination of three database systems:
* The Pollution Incident Reporting System (PIRS)(1973-1985) - PIRS was established in 1973 to facilitate Coast Guard collection of reported spill data, as assigned by Executive Order 11735, and provided the basis for the database system that has been successively modified to the present time.
* The Marine Safety Information System (MSIS-MP Fragment)(1985-1991) - PIRS was replaced by MSIS on 1 October 1985 to improve the program's ability to collect and manage critical incident data, not only reported pollution data, that is entered directly into the system by field units. MSIS greatly expanded the number of data fields in the database.
* Modified MSIS system ("MIN-MOD"-Marine Investigations Module) (1991-Present). In 1991, the marine investigations module of MSIS, MIN-MOD, was incorporated into the database to augment the MSIS-MP Fragment and facilitate, among other things, Coast Guard identification and analysis of contributing factors to marine casualties and pollution incidents.
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.