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390. Oil Spills in U.S. Water--Number and Volume

[Based on reported discharges into U.S. navigable waters, including territorial waters (extending 3 to 12 miles from the coastline), tributaries, the contiguous zone, onto shoreline, or into other waters that threaten the marine environment. Data found in Marine Safety Management System]

 
Spill volume Spill volume
Spill characteristic Number of spills Number of spills (1,000 gallons) (1,000 gallons)
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
 
    Total 8,177 8,569 9,491 8,972 8,960 9,038 9,335 8,624 8,315 7,915,007 1,875,952 1,875,667 2,067,388 2,489,273 2,638,229 3,117,831 942,574 885,303
 
Size of spill (gallons):
  1-100 7,541 7,982 8,823 8,470 8,440 8,614 8,904 8,299 7,962 84,043 82,091 97,213 74,068 77,961 48,936 43,434 39,082 38,093
  101-1,000 447 437 517 370 371 324 322 243 259 154,858 156,215 178,792 129,363 130,979 115,140 114,831 81,895 86,606
  1,001-3,000 80 67 75 72 79 52 57 40 54 140,140 118,410 130,916 131,918 151,756 91,426 102,008 78,117 96,743
  3,001-5,000 34 28 24 22 22 19 20 14 15 131,861 117,238 95,154 93,815 88,479 73,598 86,389 58,016 64,609
  5,001-10,000 22 26 22 19 23 9 12 15 15 157,762 192,948 160,369 140,239 165,824 63,853 92,163 109,288 108,148
  10,001-50,000 34 25 21 12 18 15 15 11 8 717,809 401,150 395,174 230,421 437,238 354,824 351,106 282,176 216,335
  50,001-100,000 11 2 7 4 3 2 0 1 0 734,618 184,000 551,225 310,200 290,342 155,950 0 84,000 0
  100,000-1,000,000 7 2 2 3 4 3 5 1 2 1,893,916 623,900 266,825 957,364 1,146,694 1,734,502 2,327,900 210,000 274,769
  1,000,000 and over 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,900,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 
Waterbody:
  Atlantic ocean 92 109 129 132 206 267 119 87 109 13,400 9,009 21,450 14,713 799,549 48,313 27,980 40,857 6,674
  Pacific ocean 480 446 594 649 666 648 491 505 644 624,494 199,306 133,704 262,292 128,752 69,053 29,209 32,841 192,775
  Gulf of Mexico 1,834 1,977 1,974 1,763 1,350 1,485 2,403 2,341 2,190 4,115,264 100,702 363,279 53,265 205,151 253,040 45,145 105,462 181,372
  Great Lakes 194 191 229 256 240 282 228 156 119 129,131 5,103 43,489 10,602 15,984 3,103 3,507 4,311 3,006
  Lakes 11 14 21 19 16 26 19 29 25 383 1,256 377 2,300 318 92 52 210,270 63
  Rivers and canals 1,749 2,010 1,999 1,744 1,814 1,849 1,984 1,821 1,944 1,775,142 430,905 315,908 942,114 383,171 1,156,002 475,550 182,676 280,651
  Bays and sounds 988 938 969 1,004 1,062 1,109 793 811 891 263,436 143,723 209,916 418,137 72,022 41,004 1,092,207 46,450 24,234
  Harbors 940 916 1,241 1,095 1,016 1,176 992 858 790 455,108 687,563 245,977 51,842 346,649 148,229 288,252 45,932 97,223
  Other 1,889 1,968 2,335 2,310 2,590 2,196 2,306 2,016 1,603 538,649 298,385 541,567 312,123 537,677 919,393 1,155,929 273,775 99,305
 
Location:
  Internal/headlands waters 3,845 4,087 4,412 4,091 4,108 4,364 3,939 3,596 3,688 2,613,902 772,248 817,967 1,423,769 816,427 1,340,457 1,025,376 489,056 397,446
  Coastal (0-3 miles) 933 1,052 1,120 784 861 1,112 1,055 988 1,226 604,197 616,705 251,050 79,393 884,942 115,929 46,604 67,274 110,747
  Contiguous zone (3-12 miles) 136 151 171 338 322 225 407 380 223 30,167 5,791 11,434 75,314 9,124 100,829 15,198 16,280 10,818
  Ocean (12-200 miles) 425 1,109 1,267 1,294 894 761 1,148 1,121 1,172 3,999,262 137,133 175,235 130,679 199,240 89,587 31,474 78,181 89,099
  Ocean general 964 222 182 121 167 331 477 522 392 93,587 39,086 70,419 36,865 13,663 56,126 840,666 19,588 177,327
  General/other 1,874 1,948 2,339 2,344 2,608 2,245 2,309 2,017 1,614 573,892 304,989 549,562 321,368 565,877 935,301 1,158,513 272,195 99,866
 
Source:
  Tankship 249 220 193 172 172 148 122 124 104 4,977,251 92,334 118,075 69,541 69,694 125,491 219,311 22,429 56,673
  Tankbarge 457 428 322 314 393 353 313 252 220 992,025 241,346 149,212 697,653 955,582 1,101,938 1,163,258 165,649 248,089
  All other vessels 1,779 1,780 4,795 4,944 4,681 4,977 5,151 4,971 4,848 417,882 362,809 398,145 409,963 308,343 396,724 298,451 192,801 316,473
  Facilities 2,287 2,389 2,045 2,320 2,258 586 509 838 937 1,059,302 445,986 504,600 350,141 667,016 868,900 406,384 204,935 166,269
  Pipelines 149 105 36 35 55 30 17 32 45 316,928 49,382 200,396 362,399 62,340 11,894 978,392 224,122 47,863
  All other non-vessels 148 117 815 826 796 500 552 486 571 32,242 10,068 235,839 145,796 348,577 77,428 23,527 72,208 32,584
  Unknown 3,108 3,530 1,285 361 605 2,444 2,671 1,921 1,590 119,377 674,027 269,400 31,895 77,721 55,854 28,508 60,430 17,352




Source: U.S. Coast Guard, http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/nmc/response/stats/Summary.htm (accessed 09 February 2000).

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/nmc/response/stats/aa.htm

* Oil spill statistics for each year are presented in tabular format at the beginning of each section and include the following information: total number of spills and total volume in each category; mean (average), median and maximum spill size; and percentages.

Spill Size - spills are sorted into nine, separate volume ranges (1-100 gallons, 101-1,000 gallons, 1,001-3,000 gallons, 3,001-5,000 gallons, ..., 100,001-1,000,000 gallons, over 1,000,000 gallons).

Waterbody - 223 individual waterbodies (Delaware River, San Francisco Bay, Lower Mississippi River, Gulf of Mexico, Bayou La Batre, etc.) were sorted into nine categories that include the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes, rivers and canals, harbors, bays and sounds, lakes, and other. In past publications, many rivers, harbors, and tributaries were coded so that spills in those waterbodies were represented as having occurred in the ocean or gulf to which they were connected. This is no longer the case. Waterbodies included in each of these categories are listed in Appendix A.

Location - categories include internal/headlands (rivers, harbors, intercoastal waterways, etc.), coastal (territorial waters (0-3 miles)), contiguous zone (3-12 miles), ocean (12-200 miles), ocean general, and other.

Major source and detailed source - 53 listed sources in the detailed source table are sorted into seven broad categories in the major source table. Major sources include tankships, tank barges, all other vessels, facilities, pipelines, all other non-vessel sources, and unknown or not elsewhere classified (NEC). Because the detailed sources are too numerous to represent graphically, only the major source categories are presented graphically.

Vessel/Facility Operation (through 1993 only). - 41 individual, coded operations were sorted into ten categories that were reported as ongoing operations at the time of the spill. They include: pumping bilges, bunkering (refueling), tanker/facility operation, cargo transfer/receiving, movement in congested waterway, lightering, underway/transporting, pipeline, other known operation, or unknown operation. Operations data represents information that may be useful for oil transportation risk assessment. Specific operations within these categories are also listed in Appendix A. After 1993, this table is not provided, because of changes in the data collection system.

Oil Type - 174 different petroleum and non-petroleum oils were sorted into the following six general categories: crude oils, heavy fuel oils (#4, #5, & #6 fuel oils), intermediate fuel oils (diesels, light crudes,) gasoline (automotive and aviation), other petroleum oils (gas-oil, asphalt, etc.), and non-petroleum oils (vegetable oils, coconut oil, etc.).

*

The passage of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA)provided the U.S. Coast Guard with statutory authority to regulate oil pollution prevention and response activities in United States' waterways. The FWPCA, also known as the Clean Water Act, requires that any discharge of an oil or hazardous substance in a harmful quantity be reported to the "appropriate agency of the United States". Executive Order 11735, dated August 3, 1973, designated the U.S. Coast Guard as the appropriate agency. As a result, the number of spills reported to the Coast Guard increased dramatically. It is from this point that the Coast Guard began building the database, now known as the Marine Safety Management System (MSMS), at Coast Guard Headquarters in Washington, DC.

MSMS data represents discharges reported to the Coast Guard by responsible parties (a requirement of FWPCA), by other private parties, government agencies, or as discovered and reported by Coast Guard personnel. All cases in MSMS fall within Coast Guard jurisdiction, as provided for in the National Contingency Plan (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 300). Included in the file are all reported discharges into U.S. navigable waters, including territorial waters (extending to three miles from the coastline), tributaries, the contiguous zone (extending from three to twelve miles from the coastline), onto shorelines, or into other waters that threaten the marine environment of the United States. Future adjustments will incorporate the new language for the U.S. territorial sea which is now set at twelve nautical miles from the coastline. MSMS has evolved since 1973 to meet Coast Guard requirements for improved data collection, analysis and interpretation capabilities and to facilitate safe, environmentally protective management of the nation's waterways. MSMS is actually a combination of three database systems:

* The Pollution Incident Reporting System (PIRS)(1973-1985) - PIRS was established in 1973 to facilitate Coast Guard collection of reported spill data, as assigned by Executive Order 11735, and provided the basis for the database system that has been successively modified to the present time.

* The Marine Safety Information System (MSIS-MP Fragment)(1985-1991) - PIRS was replaced by MSIS on 1 October 1985 to improve the program's ability to collect and manage critical incident data, not only reported pollution data, that is entered directly into the system by field units. MSIS greatly expanded the number of data fields in the database.

* Modified MSIS system ("MIN-MOD"-Marine Investigations Module) (1991-Present). In 1991, the marine investigations module of MSIS, MIN-MOD, was incorporated into the database to augment the MSIS-MP Fragment and facilitate, among other things, Coast Guard identification and analysis of contributing factors to marine casualties and pollution incidents.

*



http://www.allcountries.org/uscensus/390_oil_spills_in_u_s_water.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.