Large Volcano Explocivity Index


SOURCE: Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History, Global Volcanism Program
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Known large-volume Holocene explosive eruptions with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 4 or larger. "P" and "C" VEI codes refer to plinian or caldera-forming eruptions, respectively, of large, but unknown magnitudes. See notes below the table for additional information.

Rank VEI Volcano Location Date
1 7 Santorini Greece 1610 BC ± 14 years
- 7 Changbaishan Eastern China 1000 ± 40 years
- 7 Crater Lake Oregon (USA) 5677 BC ± 150 years
- 7 Kikai Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 4350 BC (?)
- 7 Kurile Lake Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6440 BC ± 25 years
- 7 Tambora Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia) 1815 Apr 10
2 6+ Ambrym Vanuatu 50 AD ± 100 years
- 6+ Ilopango El Salvador 450 AD ± 30 years
- 6+ Menengai Eastern Africa 6050 BC (?)
3 6 Aniakchak Alaska Peninsula 5250 BC ± 1000 years
- 6 Aniakchak Alaska Peninsula 1645 BC ± 10 years
- 6 Apoyeque Nicaragua 50 BC ± 100 years
- 6 Bardarbunga Northeastern Iceland 1477 Feb (?)
- 6 Billy Mitchell Bougainville Island 1580 ± 20 years
- 6 Black Peak Alaska Peninsula 1900 BC ± 150 years
- 6 Ceboruco Mexico 930 AD ± 200 years
- 6 Cerro Hudson Southern Chile 4750 BC (?)
- 6 Cerro Hudson Southern Chile 1890 BC (?)
- 6 Churchill Eastern Alaska 60 AD ± 200 years
- 6 Churchill Eastern Alaska 800 AD ± 100 years
- 6 Crater Lake Oregon (USA) 5900 BC ± 50 years
- 6 Dakataua New Britain 800 AD ± 50 years
- 6 Fisher Aleutian Islands 7420 BC ± 200 years
- 6 Grimsvotn Northeastern Iceland 8230 BC ± 50 years
- 6 Huaynaputina Peru 1600 Feb 19
- 6 Karymsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6600 BC (?)
- 6 Khangar Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 5700 BC ± 16 years
- 6 Krakatau Indonesia 1883 Aug 27
- 6 Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 240 AD ± 100 years
- 6 Long Island Northeast of New Guinea 2040 BC ± 100 years
- 6 Long Island Northeast of New Guinea 1660 ± 20 years
- 6 Lvinaya Past Kuril Islands 7480 BC ± 50 years
- 6 Macauley Island Kermadec Islands 4360 BC ± 200 years
- 6 Masaya Nicaragua 4050 BC (?)
- 6 Mashu Hokkaido (Japan) 5550 BC ± 100 years
- 6 Novarupta Alaska Peninsula 1912 Jun 6
- 6 Okmok Aleutian Islands 100 BC ± 50 years
- 6 Pago New Britain 4000 BC ± 200 years
- 6 Pago New Britain 1370 BC ± 100 years
- 6 Pago New Britain 710 AD ± 75 years
- 6 Pinatubo Luzon (Philippines) 7460 BC ± 150 years
- 6 Pinatubo Luzon (Philippines) 3550 BC (?)
- 6 Pinatubo Luzon (Philippines) 1050 BC ± 500 years
- 6 Pinatubo Luzon (Philippines) 1991 Jun 15
- 6 Quilotoa Ecuador 1280 (?)
- 6 Rabaul New Britain 540 AD ± 100 years
- 6 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 250 BC ± 75 years
- 6 Sakura-Jima Kyushu (Japan) 6200 BC ± 1000 years
- 6 Santa Maria Guatemala 1902 Oct 24
- 6 St. Helens Washington (USA) 1860 BC (?)
- 6 Taal Luzon (Philippines) 3580 BC ± 200 years
- 6 Tao-Rusyr Caldera Kuril Islands 5550 BC ± 75 years
- 6 Taupo New Zealand 1460 BC ± 40 years
- 6 Taupo New Zealand 230 AD ± 16 years
- 6 Ulreung Korea 8750 BC
- 6 Veniaminof Alaska Peninsula 1750 BC (?)
- 5+ Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 5980 BC ± 100 years
- 5+ Billy Mitchell Bougainville Island 1030 ± 25 years
- 5+ Cerro Azul Central Chile 1932 Apr 10
- 5+ Cerro Hudson Southern Chile 1991 Aug 12
- 5+ Cotopaxi Ecuador 5820 BC ± 75 years
- 5+ Cotopaxi Ecuador 3880 BC ± 75 years
- 5+ Hekla Southern Iceland 1100 BC ± 50 years
- 5+ Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 4900 BC (?)
- 5+ Masaya Nicaragua 150 AD (?)
- 5+ Opala Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 610 AD ± 50 years
- 5+ Sollipulli Central Chile 920 BC ± 75 years
5 5+ St. Helens Washington (USA) 1480 Jan 15 ± 120 days
- 5+ Towada Honshu (Japan) 4150 BC (?)
- 5 Agua De Pau Azores 2990 BC (?)
- 5 Agua De Pau Azores 1563 Jun 28
- 5 Aguilera Southern Chile 1250 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Agung Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia) 1963 Mar 17
- 5 Akutan Aleutian Islands 340 AD (?)
- 5 Antillanca Group Central Chile 960 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Antillanca Group Central Chile 230 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Apoyeque Nicaragua 4160 BC ± 30 years
- 5 Apoyeque Nicaragua 2550 BC ± 1000 years
- 5 Asama Honshu (Japan) 1108 Aug 29
- 5 Askja Northeastern Iceland 8910 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Askja Northeastern Iceland 1875 Mar 29
- 5 Atacazo Ecuador 2490 BC ± 40 years
- 5 Atacazo Ecuador 320 BC ± 16 years
- 5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 4340 BC ± 75 years
- 5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 3200 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1500 BC (?)
- 5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1350 BC (?)
- 5 Bezymianny Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1956 Mar 30
- 5 Campi Flegrei Italy 2150 BC ± 500 years
- 5 Colima Mexico 1913 Jan 20
- 5 Cosiguina Nicaragua 1835 Jan 20
- 5 Cotopaxi Ecuador 4350 BC ± 75 years
- 5 Cotopaxi Ecuador 3280 BC ± 500 years
- 5 Cotopaxi Ecuador 2640 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Cotopaxi Ecuador 2050 BC (?)
- 5 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1130 ± 75 years
- 5 Cuicocha Ecuador 1150 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Dana Alaska Peninsula 1890 BC (?)
- 5 El Chichon Mexico 2030 BC ± 100 years
- 5 El Chichon Mexico 780 AD ± 100 years
- 5 El Chichon Mexico 1360 ± 100 years
- 5 El Chichon Mexico 1982 Apr 3
- 5 Etna Italy 1500 BC ± 50 years
- 5 Etna Italy 122 BC
- 5 Fisher Aleutian Islands 3170 BC ± 75 years
- 5 Fuji Honshu (Japan) 1350 BC (?)
- 5 Fuji Honshu (Japan) 930 BC (in or after)
- 5 Fuji Honshu (Japan) 1707 Dec 16
- 5 Furnas Azores 80 AD ± 100 years
- 5 Furnas Azores 1630 Sep 3
- 5 Galunggung Java (Indonesia) 2250 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Galunggung Java (Indonesia) 1822 Oct 8
- 5 Gamkonora Halmahera (Indonesia) 1673 May 20
- 5 Guagua Pichincha Ecuador 910 AD ± 100 years
- 5 Hachijo-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 4650 BC (?)
- 5 Hachijo-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 2050 BC (?)
- 5 Haruna Honshu (Japan) 550 AD ± 10 years
- 5 Hayes Southwestern Alaska 1550 BC (?)
- 5 Hekla Southern Iceland 5150 BC (?)
- 5 Hekla Southern Iceland 2310 BC ± 20 years
- 5 Hekla Southern Iceland 1104 Oct 15 ± 45 days
- 5 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 2690 BC ± 75 years
- 5 Ichinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 5400 BC (?)
- 5 Ilyinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2850 BC (?)
- 5 Kaguyak Alaska Peninsula 3850 BC (?)
- 5 Katla Southern Iceland 1262
- 5 Katla Southern Iceland 1625 Sep 2
- 5 Katla Southern Iceland 1721 May 11
- 5 Katla Southern Iceland 1755 Oct 17
- 5 Kelut Java (Indonesia) 1586
- 5 Kharimkotan Kuril Islands 1933 Jan 8
- 5 Khodutka Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 930 BC ± 100 years
- 5 Kizimen Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 8050 BC (?)
- 5 Kizimen Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6400 BC ± 50 years
- 5 Komaga-Take Hokkaido (Japan) 4600 BC ± 50 years
- 5 Komaga-Take Hokkaido (Japan) 1640 Jul 31
- 5 Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7900 BC (?)
- 5 Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 5200 BC (?)
- 5 Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1907 Mar 28 (?)
- 5 Llaima Central Chile 6880 BC ± 75 years
- 5 Makushin Aleutian Islands 6100 BC ± 50 years
- 5 Masaya Nicaragua 170 BC ± 100 years
- 5 Mashu Hokkaido (Japan) 1080 ± 100 years
- 5 Mayor Island New Zealand 5060 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Meager Canada 410 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Monte Burney Southern Chile 7450 BC ± 500 years
- 5 Monte Burney Southern Chile 2320 BC ± 100 years
- 5 Myoko Honshu (Japan) 4750 BC ± 300 years
- 5 Nevado Del Tolima Colombia 1990 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Numazawa Honshu (Japan) 3400 BC (?)
- 5 Okataina New Zealand 7560 BC ± 18 years
- 5 Okataina New Zealand 6060 BC ± 50 years
- 5 Okataina New Zealand 3580 BC ± 50 years
- 5 Okataina New Zealand 1310 ± 12 years
- 5 Okataina New Zealand 1886 Jun 10
- 5 Oraefajokull Southeastern Iceland 1362 Jun 5 ± 4 days
- 5 Pago Honshu (Japan) 310 AD ± 100 years
- 5 Pago New Britain 690 AD ± 100 years
- 5 Parker Philippines-Mindanao 1641 Jan 4
- 5 Pico De Orizaba Mexico 6710 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Pinatubo Luzon (Philippines) 1450 ± 50 years
- 5 Piton De La Fournaise Western Indian Ocean 2700 BC (?)
- 5 Pululagua Ecuador 690 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Puyehue Cordon Caulle Central Chile 5080 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Puyehue Cordon Caulle Central Chile 860 AD ± 75 years
- 5 Raung Java (Indonesia) 1593
- 5 Sakura-Jima Kyushu (Japan) 6050 BC (?)
- 5 Sakura-Jima Kyushu (Japan) 1471 Nov 3
- 5 Seguam Aleutian Islands 7300 BC ± 1000 years
- 5 Shikotsu Hokkaido (Japan) 6950 BC (?)
- 5 Shikotsu Hokkaido (Japan) 550 BC (?)
- 5 Shikotsu Hokkaido (Japan) 1667 Sep 23
- 5 Shikotsu Hokkaido (Japan) 1739 Aug 19
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7400 BC ± 150 years
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7300 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7150 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6800 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 5500 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 4400 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 3650 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 3500 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2620 BC ± 300 years
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2100 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2000 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 950 BC (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 600 AD (?)
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 650 AD ± 40 years
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1030 ± 100 years
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1650 ± 10 years
- 5 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1854 Feb 18
- 5 Soche Ecuador 6650 BC (?)
- 5 St. Helens Washington (USA) 2340 BC (?)
- 5 St. Helens Washington (USA) 1770 BC ± 100 years
- 5 St. Helens Washington (USA) 530 BC (?)
- 5 St. Helens Washington (USA) 1482 Jan 15 ± 120 days
- 5 St. Helens Washington (USA) 1800 Jan 15 ± 120 days
- 5 St. Helens Washington (USA) 1980 May 18
- 5 Taranaki [Egmont] New Zealand 1700 BC ± 100 years
- 5 Taupo New Zealand 9460 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Taupo New Zealand 9240 BC ± 75 years
- 5 Taupo New Zealand 8130 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Tavui New Britain 5150 BC ± 1000 years
- 5 Tongariro New Zealand 9650 BC
- 5 Tongariro New Zealand 9450 BC
- 5 Tongariro New Zealand 9350 BC
- 5 Tongariro New Zealand 550 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Tongkoko Sulawesi (Indonesia) 1680
- 5 Towada Honshu (Japan) 8250 BC
- 5 Towada Honshu (Japan) 7250 BC (?)
- 5 Towada Honshu (Japan) 915 AD Aug 17
- 5 Tungurahua Ecuador 1010 BC ± 100 years
- 5 Ubinas Peru 1080 ± 75 years
- 5 Usu Hokkaido (Japan) 1663 Aug 16
- 5 Vesuvius Italy 6940 BC ± 100 years
- 5 Vesuvius Italy 2420 BC ± 40 years
- 5 Vesuvius Italy 79 AD Oct 24 (?)
- 5 Vesuvius Italy 472 AD Nov 5
6 5 Vesuvius Italy 1631 Dec 16
- 5 Villarrica Central Chile 1810 BC ± 200 years
- 5 Yantarni Alaska Peninsula 800 BC ± 500 years
- 5 Yucamane Peru 1320 BC (?)
- 5 Zheltovsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7050 BC ± 1000 years
- 5 Zheltovsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 3050 BC (?)
- 5 Roundtop Aleutian Islands 7600 BC ± 500 years
- 4+ Ambrym Vanuatu 1951
- 4+ Aniakchak Alaska Peninsula 1560 ± 50 years
- 4+ Cerro Bravo Colombia 730 BC ± 75 years
- 4+ Cotopaxi Ecuador 1350 (?)
- 4+ El Chichon Mexico 1982 Mar 28
- 4+ Fuji Honshu (Japan) 1030 BC (?)
- 4+ Glacier Peak Washington (USA) 200 AD ± 50 years
- 4+ Grimsvotn Northeastern Iceland 1783 Jun 8
- 4+ Haruna Honshu (Japan) 520 AD ± 10 years
- 4+ Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 660 AD (?)
- 4+ Izu-Tobu Honshu (Japan) 1150 BC ± 50 years
- 4+ Katla Southern Iceland 1357 ± 3 years
- 4+ Katla Southern Iceland 1918 Oct 12
- 4+ Khodutka Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1050 BC (in or before)
- 4+ Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1000 ± 50 years
- 4+ Miyake-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 950 BC ± 200 years
- 4+ Momotombo Nicaragua 800 BC ± 50 years
- 4+ Nii-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 886 AD Jun 29
- 4+ Okataina New Zealand 1750 BC (?)
- 4+ Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 3200 BC (?)
- 4+ Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2200 BC (?)
- 4+ Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 780 BC ± 300 years
- 4+ Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 500 AD (?)
- 4+ Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 580 AD (?)
- 4+ Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1964 Nov 12
- 4+ Suwanose-Jima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 1600 (?)
- 4+ Taupo New Zealand 1010 BC ± 200 years
- 4+ Taupo New Zealand 200 BC (?)
- 4+ Tenerife Canary Islands 80 BC ± 40 years
- 4+ Tolbachik Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 50 AD (?)
7 4+ Tolbachik Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 400 AD (?)
- 4+ Tolbachik Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 950 AD (?)
- 4+ Tolbachik Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1000 (?)
- 4+ Tolbachik Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1975 Jul 6
- 4+ Tolmachev Dol Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2650 BC (?)
- 4+ Towada Honshu (Japan) 750 BC (?)
- 4+ Zavaritsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 850 BC (?)
- 4 Agrigan Mariana Islands 1917 Apr 9
- 4 Agua De Pau Azores 1290 BC (?)
- 4 Agung Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia) 1963 May 16
- 4 Akan Hokkaido (Japan) 7050 BC (?)
- 4 Akita-Komaga-Take Honshu (Japan) 8300 BC ± 300 years
- 4 Akita-Komaga-Take Honshu (Japan) 7850 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Alaid Kuril Islands 1793 Feb
- 4 Alaid Kuril Islands 1981 Apr 30
- 4 Alamagan Mariana Islands 870 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Aniakchak Alaska Peninsula 1931 May 11
- 4 Aoga-Shima Izu Islands (Japan) 600 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Apoyeque Nicaragua 1050 BC ± 1000 years
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 5060 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 3900 BC (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 3350 BC (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 2800 BC (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 2250 BC (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 1650 BC (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 1450 BC (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 1250 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 380 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 270 BC (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 400 AD (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 550 AD (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 650 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 700 AD (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 750 AD ± 50 years
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 1020 (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 1030 (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 1400 (?)
- 4 Arenal Costa Rica 170 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Asama Honshu (Japan) 2550 BC ± 500 years
- 4 Asama Honshu (Japan) 350 AD ± 10 years
- 4 Asama Honshu (Japan) 1783 Aug 3
- 4 Augustine Southwestern Alaska 1540 ± 100 years
- 4 Augustine Southwestern Alaska 1883 Oct 6
- 4 Augustine Southwestern Alaska 1976 Jan 22 (?)
- 4 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 4550 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 4460 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 3790 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2530 BC ± 300 years
- 4 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1827 Jun 27
- 4 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1926 Apr 5
- 4 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1945 Feb 25
- 4 Awu Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) 1812 Aug 6
- 4 Awu Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) 1966 Aug 12
- 4 Babuyan Claro North of Luzon (Philippines) 1831
- 4 Bagana Bougainville Island 1952 Feb 29
- 4 Bandai Honshu (Japan) 1888 Jul 15
- 4 Bardarbunga Northeastern Iceland 870 AD (?)
- 4 Bezymianny Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 450 BC (?)
- 4 Bezymianny Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 700 AD ± 50 years
- 4 Bezymianny Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 950 AD (?)
- 4 Calbuco Southern Chile 1893 Jan 10
- 4 Campi Flegrei Italy 8480 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Campi Flegrei Italy 6650 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Campi Flegrei Italy 2500 BC (?)
- 4 Campi Flegrei Italy 2000 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Campi Flegrei Italy 1870 BC ± 50 years
- 4 Campi Flegrei Italy 1650 BC (?)
- 4 Carran-Los Venados Central Chile 1955 Jul 27
- 4 Cayambe Ecuador 1040 (?)
- 4 Cayambe Ecuador 1290 (?)
- 4 Cayambe Ecuador 1570 (?)
- 4 Cerro Bravo Colombia 4280 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Cerro Bravo Colombia 1310 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Cerro Bravo Colombia 1050 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Cerro Bravo Colombia 750 AD ± 150 years
- 4 Cerro Bravo Colombia 1050 ± 75 years
- 4 Cerro Bravo Colombia 1330 ± 75 years
- 4 Cerro Bravo Colombia 1720 ± 150 years
- 4 Chaiten Southern Chile 2008 May 2
- 4 Chichinautzin Mexico 7370 BC ± 300 years
- 4 Chikurachki Kuril Islands 1690 ± 10 years
- 4 Chikurachki Kuril Islands 1986 Nov 20
- 4 Chirpoi Kuril Islands 1712 Dec 31 ± 365 days
- 4 Colima Mexico 2370 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Colima Mexico 1585 Jan 10
- 4 Colima Mexico 1606 Nov 25
- 4 Colima Mexico 1606 Dec 13
- 4 Colima Mexico 1622 Jun 8
- 4 Colima Mexico 1818 Feb 15
- 4 Colima Mexico 1890 Feb 16
- 4 Colo [Una Una] Sulawesi (Indonesia) 1983 Jul 23
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1050 BC (?)
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 400 BC (?)
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 230 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 70 AD ± 150 years
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador T 150 AD (?)
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 180 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 740 AD ± 75 years
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 770 AD ± 75 years
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1532 Nov 15
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1534 Jun
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1744 Nov 30
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1768 Apr 4
- 4 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1877 Jun 26
- 4 Dona Juana Colombia 1899 Nov 13
- 4 El Chichon Mexico 1190 ± 150 years
- 4 El Misti Peru 80 BC ± 75 years
- 4 Elovsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7550 BC ± 500 years
- 4 Etna Italy 1787 Jul 18
- 4 Fernandina Galapagos Islands 1968 Jun 11
- 4 Fonualei Tonga Islands 1846 Jun 11 (?)
- 4 Fuego Guatemala 1581 Dec 26
- 4 Fuego Guatemala 1582 Jan 14
- 4 Fuego Guatemala 1717 Aug 27
- 4 Fuego Guatemala 1737 Aug 27
- 4 Fuego Guatemala 1857 Jan 15
- 4 Fuego Guatemala 1880 Jun 28
- 4 Fuego Guatemala 1974 Oct 17
- 4 Fuji Honshu (Japan) 800 AD Apr 11
- 4 Furnas Azores 840 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Furnas Azores 1170 ± 100 years
- 4 Furnas Azores 1441 ± 2 years
- 4 Galunggung Java (Indonesia) 1982 May 17
- 4 Grimsvotn Northeastern Iceland 1873 Jan 8
- 4 Grimsvotn Northeastern Iceland 1903 May 28
- 4 Guagua Pichincha Ecuador 70 AD ± 75 years
- 4 Guagua Pichincha Ecuador 1660 Oct 27
- 4 Hachijo-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 8020 BC ± 1000 years
- 4 Hachijo-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 2450 BC ± 500 years
- 4 Haku-San Honshu (Japan) G 200 BC (?)
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1550 BC (?)
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1158 Jan 19
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1300 Jul 11
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1510 Jul 25
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1597 Jan 3
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1693 Feb 13
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1766 Apr 5
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1845 Sep 2
- 4 Hekla Southern Iceland 1947 Mar 29
- 4 Hudson Mountains Antarctica 210 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 2010 BC (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 1780 BC (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 1500 BC (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 650 BC (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 270 BC (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 80 BC (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 130 AD (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 150 AD (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 600 AD (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 720 AD (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 770 AD (?)
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 874 AD Mar 29
- 4 Ibusuki Kyushu (Japan) 885 AD Aug 29
- 4 Inyo Craters California (USA) 600 AD ± 75 years
- 4 Inyo Craters California (USA) 1380 ± 50 years
- 4 Iriomote-Jima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 1924 Oct 31
- 4 Isanotski Aleutian Islands 1825 Mar 10
- 4 Izu-Tobu Honshu (Japan) 2100 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Karymsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 3200 BC (?)
- 4 Karymsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2250 BC (?)
- 4 Kasatochi Aleutian Islands 2008 Aug 7
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1920 BC (?)
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1440 BC ± 40 years
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 850 BC ± 50 years
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 920 AD
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 934 AD ± 2 years
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1210 (?)
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1245
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1416
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1440
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1500 (?)
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1550 (?)
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1580 Aug 11
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1612 Oct 12
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1660 Nov 3
- 4 Katla Southern Iceland 1860 May 8
- 4 Kelut Java (Indonesia) 1641
- 4 Kelut Java (Indonesia) 1826 Oct 11
- 4 Kelut Java (Indonesia) 1919 May 19
- 4 Kelut Java (Indonesia) 1951 Aug 31
- 4 Kelut Java (Indonesia) 1966 Apr 26
- 4 Kelut Java (Indonesia) 1990 Feb 10
- 4 Kikhpinych Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2780 BC ± 25 years
- 4 Kikhpinych Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1350 (?)
- 4 Kilauea Hawaiian Islands 1790 Nov (?)
- 4 Kinenin Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 850 AD ± 50 years
- 4 Kirishima Kyushu (Japan) 4350 BC (?)
- 4 Kirishima Kyushu (Japan) 2650 BC (?)
- 4 Kirishima Kyushu (Japan) 788 AD Apr 18
- 4 Kizimen Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 4450 BC (?)
- 4 Kliuchevskoi Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1829 Sep 9
- 4 Kliuchevskoi Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1931 Mar 25
- 4 Kliuchevskoi Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1990 Jan 30
- 4 Komaga-Take Hokkaido (Japan) 1694 Jul 4
- 4 Komaga-Take Hokkaido (Japan) 1856 Sep 25
- 4 Komaga-Take Hokkaido (Japan) 1929 Jun 17
- 4 Kozu-Shima Izu Islands (Japan) 838 AD Aug 2 (?)
- 4 Krafla Northeastern Iceland 650 BC (?)
- 4 Krasheninnikov Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6000 BC ± 50 years
- 4 Krasheninnikov Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 5800 BC ± 50 years
- 4 Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 3000 BC (?)
- 4 Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1750 (?)
- 4 Kuchinoerabu-Jima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 1933 Dec 24
- 4 Kuju Kyushu Japan 9160 BC ± 1000 years
- 4 Kuju Kyushu (Japan) 3780 BC ± 500 years
- 4 Kuju Kyushu (Japan) 2440 BC ± 300 years
- 4 Kuju Kyushu (Japan) 990 BC ± 1000 years
- 4 Kuju Kyushu (Japan) 100 BC ± 300 years
- 4 Kusatsu-Shirane Honshu (Japan) 1120 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Lamington New Guinea 1951 Jan 21
- 4 Lascar Northern Chile 1993 Apr 19
- 4 Llaima Central Chile 1640 Feb
- 4 Lolobau New Britain 1100 ± 30 years
- 4 Lolobau New Britain 1911
- 4 Makian Halmahera (Indonesia) 1646 Jul 19
- 4 Makian Halmahera (Indonesia) 1760 Sep 22
- 4 Makian Halmahera (Indonesia) 1861 Dec 28
- 4 Maly Semiachik Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1550 (?)
- 4 Manam Northeast of New Guinea 1919 Aug 11
- 4 Manam Northeast of New Guinea 2005 Jan 27
- 4 Mashu Hokkaido (Japan) 3550 BC ± 40 years
- 4 Mashu Hokkaido (Japan) 2050 BC ± 40 years
- 4 Mashu Hokkaido (Japan) 150 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Mayon Luzon (Philippines) 1814 Feb 1
- 4 Mayon Luzon (Philippines) 1897 Jun 25
- 4 Merapi Java (Indonesia) 1872 Apr 15
- 4 Michoacan-Guanajuato Mexico 1759 Sep 29
- 4 Michoacan-Guanajuato Mexico 1764
- 4 Michoacan-Guanajuato Mexico 1943 Feb 20
- 4 Miyake-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 6450 BC ± 500 years
- 4 Miyake-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 2900 BC ± 500 years
- 4 Miyake-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 260 AD ± 500 years
- 4 Miyake-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 850 AD (?)
- 4 Miyake-Jima Izu Islands (Japan) 1763 Aug 17
- 4 Momotombo Nicaragua 1605
- 4 Mono Craters California (USA) 810 AD ± 300 years
- 4 Mono Craters California (USA) 1350 ± 20 years
- 4 Myoko Honshu (Japan) 2750 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Nevado Del Ruiz Colombia 850 BC (?)
- 4 Nevado Del Ruiz Colombia 200 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Nevado Del Ruiz Colombia 1350 (?)
- 4 Nevado Del Ruiz Colombia 1595 Mar 12
- 4 Newberry Oregon (USA) 490 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Newberry Oregon (USA) 690 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Niigata-Yake-Yama Honshu (Japan) 887 AD
- 4 Niuafo'ou Tonga Islands 1886 Aug 31
- 4 Okmok Aleutian Islands 2008 Jul 12
- 4 Oraefajokull Southeastern Iceland 1727 Aug 3
- 4 Oshima Izu Islands (Japan) 340 AD ± 200 years
- 4 Oshima Izu Islands (Japan) 680 AD (?)
- 4 Oshima Izu Islands (Japan) 854 AD (?) Sep 14 (?)
- 4 Oshima Izu Islands (Japan) 886 AD (?) Jun 29 (?)
- 4 Oshima Izu Islands (Japan) 1183 (?)
- 4 Oshima Izu Islands (Japan) 1421 May 14
- 4 Oshima-Oshima Hokkaido (Japan) 1741 Aug 29
- 4 Pagan Mariana Islands 1981 May 15
- 4 Pavlof Alaska Peninsula 1786
- 4 Pelee West Indies 8210 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Pelee West Indies 6610 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Pelee West Indies 3430 BC ± 75 years
- 4 Pelee West Indies 2660 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Pelee West Indies 590 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Pelee West Indies 10 AD ± 50 years
- 4 Pelee West Indies 350 AD ± 75 years
- 4 Pelee West Indies 1340 ± 50 years
- 4 Pelee West Indies 1902 May 2
- 4 Pelee West Indies 1902 May 8
- 4 Pico De Orizaba Mexico 7030 BC ± 50 years
- 4 Pico De Orizaba Mexico 2300 BC ± 75 years
- 4 Planchon-Peteroa Central Chile 1762 Dec 3
- 4 Rabaul New Britain 1937 May 29
- 4 Rabaul New Britain 1994 Sep 19
- 4 Rabaul New Britain 2006 Oct 7
- 4 Raikoke Kuril Islands 1778
- 4 Raikoke Kuril Islands 1924 Feb 15
- 4 Rainier Washington (USA) 250 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 2000 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 1200 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 100 AD (?)
- 4 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 400 AD (?)
- 4 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 550 AD (?)
- 4 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 850 AD (?)
- 4 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 1630 ± 50 years
- 4 Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 1720 ± 50 years
- 4 Raung Java (Indonesia) 1638
- 4 Raung Java (Indonesia) 1817 Jan 16
- 4 Rausu Hokkaido (Japan) 550 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Redoubt Aleutian Islands 2009 Mar 22
- 4 Reventador Ecuador 2002 Nov 3
- 4 Reykjanes Southwestern Iceland 1211 Aug 31 ± 30 days
- 4 Reykjanes Southwestern Iceland 1226 Jul 15 ± 45 days
- 4 Rincon De La Vieja Costa Rica 1820 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Ruang Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) 2002 Sep 25
- 4 Ruapehu New Zealand 7840 BC (in or before)
- 4 Sakura-Jima Kyushu (Japan) 3050 BC (?)
- 4 Sakura-Jima Kyushu (Japan) 2900 BC (?)
- 4 Sakura-Jima Kyushu (Japan) 764 AD Jan
- 4 Sakura-Jima Kyushu (Japan) 1779 Nov 8
- 4 Sakura-Jima Kyushu (Japan) 1914 Jan 12
- 4 San Martin Mexico 1793 Mar 2
- 4 San Salvador El Salvador 1200 (?)
- 4 Sanbe Honshu (Japan) 1920 BC (?)
- 4 Santorini Greece 726 AD Jul 15 ± 45 days
- 4 Santorini Greece 1650 Sep 27
- 4 Sarychev Peak Kuril Islands 1946 Nov 9
- 4 Sarychev Peak Kuril Islands 2009 Jun 11
- 4 Serua Banda Sea 1693 Jun 4
- 4 Sete Cidades Azores 3050 BC (?)
- 4 Sete Cidades Azores 90 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Sete Cidades Azores 380 AD ± 300 years
- 4 Sete Cidades Azores 1444 (?)
- 4 Shasta California (USA) 7650 BC ± 100 years
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 8350 BC
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 8200 BC
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 8100 BC
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7950 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7700 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7630 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7600 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 7500 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6600 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6400 BC ± 150 years
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6380 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 6350 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1700 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 500 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 300 BC (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 100 AD (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 250 AD (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 970 AD (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 1430 (?)
- 4 Shiveluch Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 2001 May 22
- 4 Sinarka Kuril Islands 1872
- 4 Soufriere St. Vincent West Indies 1812 Apr 27
- 4 Soufriere St. Vincent West Indies 1902 May 6
- 4 South Sister Oregon (USA) 350 BC (?)
- 4 Spurr Southwestern Alaska 1953 Jul 9
- 4 Spurr Southwestern Alaska 1992 Jun 27
- 4 Sunset Crater Arizona (USA) 1075 ± 25 years
- 4 Suoh Sumatra (Indonesia) 1933 Jul 10
- 4 Suwanose-Jima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 1813
- 4 Suwanose-Jima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 1877
- 4 Suwanose-Jima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 1889 Oct 2
- 4 Taal Luzon (Philippines) 1716 Sep 24
- 4 Taal Luzon (Philippines) 1749 Aug 11 (?)
- 4 Taal Luzon (Philippines) 1754 Nov 28
- 4 Taal Luzon (Philippines) 1965 Sep 28
- 4 Tacana Mexico 70 AD ± 100 years
- 4 Takahara Honshu (Japan) 4570 BC (?)
- 4 Taranaki [Egmont] New Zealand 1655 (?)
- 4 Taupo New Zealand 9210 BC
- 4 Taupo New Zealand 4700 BC (?)
- 4 Taupo New Zealand 4100 BC (?)
- 4 Taupo New Zealand 3170 BC ± 200 years
- 4 Taupo New Zealand 3070 BC (?)
- 4 Taupo New Zealand 2900 BC (?)
- 4 Taupo New Zealand 2600 BC (?)
- 4 Taupo New Zealand 1050 BC (?)
- 4 Telica Nicaragua 1529
- 4 Teon Banda Sea 1660 Feb
- 4 Tiatia Kuril Islands 1973 Jul 14
- 4 Tolbachik Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 900 AD (?)
- 4 Towada Honshu (Japan) 6250 BC (?)
- 4 Tsurumi Kyushu (Japan) 200 BC ± 50 years
- 4 Tungurahua Ecuador 7750 BC (?)
- 4 Tungurahua Ecuador 730 AD ± 200 years
- 4 Tungurahua Ecuador 1886 Jan 11
- 4 Tungurahua Ecuador 1918 Apr 5
- 4 Turrialba Costa Rica 40 AD ± 50 years
- 4 Ulawun New Britain 2000 Sep 29
- 4 Usu Hokkaido (Japan) 1769 Jan 23
- 4 Usu Hokkaido (Japan) 1822 Mar 12
- 4 Usu Hokkaido (Japan) 1853 Apr 22
- 4 Vestmannaeyjar Southern Iceland 8050 BC (?)
- 4 Vesuvius Italy 1550 BC ± 75 years
- 4 Vesuvius Italy 1430 BC ± 300 years
- 4 Vesuvius Italy 880 BC ± 50 years
- 4 Vesuvius Italy 512 AD Jul 8
- 4 Vesuvius Italy 685 AD Feb
- 4 Vesuvius Italy 968 AD Dec 1
4 Vesuvius Italy 1906 Apr 8
4 Vulcano Italy 183 BC
4 Westdahl Aleutian Islands 1795
4 Yake-Dake Honshu (Japan) 350 BC (?)
4 Zao Honshu (Japan) 300 AD ± 200 years
4 Fuego Guatemala 1932 Jan 21
4 Augustine Southwestern Alaska 1986 Mar 27
4 Osorno Southern Chile 420 AD ± 100 years
P Akan Hokkaido (Japan) 50 BC (?)
P Aso Kyushu (Japan) 1700 BC ± 50 years
P Aso Kyushu (Japan) 950 BC (?)
P Atacazo Ecuador 6910 BC (in or before)
P Atacazo Ecuador 3490 BC ± 100 years
P Azufral Colombia 930 BC (?)
P Barva Costa Rica 6050 BC ± 1000 years
P Changbaishan Eastern China 2160 BC ± 100 years
P Changbaishan Eastern China 180 BC ± 75 years
P Concepcion Nicaragua 770 BC ± 50 years
P Iliamna Southwestern Alaska 5050 BC (?)
P Iliamna Southwestern Alaska 2050 BC (?)
P Karkar Northeast of New Guinea 730 AD (?)
P Khangar Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 9500 BC ± 300 years
P Kirishima Kyushu (Japan) 1235 Jan 25
P Komaga-Take Hokkaido (Japan) 4350 BC (?)
P Liamuiga West Indies 2010 BC ± 150 years
P Liamuiga West Indies 160 AD ± 200 years
P Lolobau New Britain 1905
P Makushin Aleutian Islands 3650 BC ± 1000 years
P Meidob Volc Field Northern Africa 6050 BC ± 1000 years
P Meidob Volc Field Northern Africa 4150 BC ± 1000 years
P Meidob Volc Field Northern Africa 3050 BC (?)
P Meidob Volc Field Northern Africa 3000 BC (?)
P Merapi Java (Indonesia) 1180 BC ± 75 years
P Merapi Java (Indonesia) 20 AD ± 300 years
P Meru Eastern Africa 5850 BC (?)
P Okmok Aleutian Islands 6310 BC ± 500 years
P Pago New Britain 1550 (?)
P Pago New Britain 1800 (?)
P Parker Philippines-Mindanao 1920 BC ± 40 years
P Parker Philippines-Mindanao 1380 ± 75 years
P Pelee West Indies 6220 BC ± 200 years
P Pelee West Indies 5500 BC ± 200 years
P Pelee West Indies 3820 BC (?)
P Pelee West Indies 3500 BC ± 200 years
P Pelee West Indies 2430 BC (?)
P Pelee West Indies 440 BC (?)
P Pelee West Indies 200 BC (?)
P Pelee West Indies 50 AD (?)
P Pelee West Indies 130 AD (?)
P Pelee West Indies 300 AD (?)
P Pelee West Indies 450 AD (?)
P Pelee West Indies 890 AD ± 100 years
P Popocatepetl Mexico 7150 BC (?)
P Popocatepetl Mexico 5150 BC (?)
P Popocatepetl Mexico 3010 BC ± 200 years
P Popocatepetl Mexico 200 BC ± 300 years
P Popocatepetl Mexico 823 AD Mar 1
P Romeral Colombia 5950 BC ± 500 years
P Rungwe Eastern Africa 2400 BC (?)
P Soufrierre Guadeloupe West Indies 1370 ± 150 years
P Soufrierre Guadeloupe West Indies 1440 ± 100 years
P Tengger Caldera Java (Indonesia) 830 BC ± 50 years
P The Quill West Indies 6140 BC ± 200 years
P Nevado Del Tolima Colombia 7800 BC ± 300 years
P Vesuvius Italy 203 AD
P Villarrica Central Chile 6690 BC (?)
C Chaiten Southern Chile 7420 BC ± 75 years
C Dona Juana Colombia 2550 BC ± 150 years
C Ilyinsky Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 5700 BC ± 50 years
C Jebel Marra Northern Africa 2000 BC (?)
C Karkar Northeast of New Guinea 7140 BC ± 150 years
C Karkar Northeast of New Guinea 520 AD ± 100 years
C Krakatau Indonesia 416 AD
C Krasheninnikov Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) 150 BC (?)
C Ngozi Eastern Africa 8250 BC
C Paka Eastern Africa 7550 BC ± 1000 years
C Pululagua Ecuador 450 BC ± 150 years
C Ushishur Kuril Islands 7450 BC ± 50 years
C Wrangell Eastern Alaska 190 AD ± 200 years



NOTES:

VEI =Volcanic Explosivity Index

The reported size, or "bigness," of historical eruptions depends very much on both the experience and vantage point of the observer. To meet the need for a meaningful magnitude measure that can be easily applied to eruption sizes, Newhall and Self (1982) integrated quantitative data with the subjective descriptions of observers, resulting in the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). It is a simple 0-to-8 index of increasing explosivity, with each successive integer representing about an order of magnitude increase. Criteria for VEI assignments are shown in the table below, which is followed by examples of eruptions in different VEI size classes. VEI assignments have been updated from those in Newhall and Self (1982) and Simkin and Siebert (1994).

Volcanic Explocivity Index table

Eruptive Volumes

Accurate measurement of eruptive volumes requires careful field work and is often subject to unresolvable uncertainties. Consequently, volume information is available for only a small proportion of eruptions. Volume data is displayed in two different formats. Because of space constraints in the Eruptive History table view, only the order of magnitude (in cubic meters) of calculated lava and/or tephra volumes is displayed. An entry of 8/9 under the L/T header, for example, indicates an eruption with 108 m3 of lava and 109 m3 of tephra. Because only the exponent is displayed, this means that the eruption volume may be nearly 10 times larger than shown. The Eruptive History expanded view, in contrast, has room to display the full volume data, including in some cases uncertainty ranges. It is important to note that tephra and lava volumes are listed without correction for vesicularity (the void space occupied by air bubbles, or vesicles), the extraneous fragments of older rock included accidentally in the deposit, or compaction of ash layers with time. The tephra volumes displayed, therefore, are bulk tephra volumes, and not Dense Rock Equivalents (DRE), or volumes of new magma erupted.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Data Sources

The volcano and eruption data of this digital version of Volcanoes of the World (Siebert and Simkin, 2002-) are updated from its hardcopy predecessor (Simkin and Siebert, 1994) and originate from more than 3500 references. These references are accessible in this website through both regional and volcano-specific listings. The basic building block of the Smithsonian's volcano database is the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW), a series of regional volcano catalogs published by IAVCEI beginning in 1951. In order to more easily locate these important compilations (which contain many primary references not listed in our compilation), these IAVCEI regional catalog references are bolded in our regional and volcano-specific listings.

The listings appearing here are not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography of references for a particular volcano or region, but represent those references that are cited as the sources of the volcano and eruption data in Volcanoes of the World. Several other global compilations have been helpful: among them are IAVCEI data sheets of post-Miocene volcanoes (1975-80), Volcano Letter reports of the U S Geological Survey from 1926-1955 (compiled in Fiske et al., 1987), independent compilations by Latter (1975) and Gushchenko (1979), and a caldera compilation by Newhall and Dzurisin (1988). Major sources of eruption data subsequent to or supplementing the CAVW can be found in a series of annual summaries by Gustav Hantke published between 1939 and 1962 (mostly in the IAVCEI publication Bulletin of Volcanology), and annual eruption compilations by the Volcanological Society of Japan (1960-96) and Smithsonian Institution reports (since 1968) in various formats, compiled in McClelland et al., (1985) and in the

Activity Reports section of this website (Venzke et al., 2002-). The data sources referenced focus almost exclusively on Holocene volcanism and emphasize papers on volcanic stratigraphy and physical volcanology. Abstracts are typically not referenced unless they contain significant data not in other sources. As with the Georef bibliographic database, diacritical marks are not used.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

References

CAVW Editors (1951-1975). Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World. Rome: International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, 22 volumes.

Fiske R S, Simkin T, Nielsen E A (eds) (1987). The Volcano Letter. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Inst Press, 1536 p (Reprinting of 1926-1955 issues of the U S Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory).

Gushchenko I I (1979). Eruptions of Volcanoes of the World: A Catalog. Moscow: Nauka Pub, Acad Sci USSR Far Eastern Sci Center, 474 p (in Russian).

Hantke G (1939-62). Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit. Eruption summaries published in the Zeitschrift Deutsche Geologie Gesellschafft in 1939 and the Bulletin of Volcanology in 1951, 1953, 1955, 1959, and 1962.

IAVCEI (1973-80). Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI data sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chem Earth's Interior.

Latter J H (1975). The history and geography of active and dormant volcanoes. A worldwide catalogue and index of active and potentially active volcanoes, with an outline of their eruptions. Unpublished manuscript.

McClelland L, Simkin T, Summers M, Nielsen E, and Stein T C (eds.) (1989). Global Volcanism 1975-1985. Prentice-Hall and American Geophysical Union, 653 p.

Newhall C G, and Dzurisin D (1988). Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Newhall C G, and Self S (1982). The volcanic explosivity index (VEI): an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism. J Geophys Res (Oceans & Atmospheres), 87: 1231-38.

Siebert L, and Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. Smithsonian Institution. Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-3, (http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/).

Simkin T, and Siebert L (1994). Volcanoes of the World, 2nd edition. Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Smith W H F, and Sandwell D T (1997). Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science, 277: 1957-1962.

U S Geological Survey (2002). GTOPO30. Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), U S Geol Surv EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.

Venzke E, Wunderman R W, McClelland L, Simkin, T, Luhr, J F, Siebert L, and Mayberry G (eds.) (2002-). Global Volcanism, 1968 to the Present. Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-4 (http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/).

Volcanological Society of Japan (1960-96). Bulletin of Volcanic Eruptions, no 1-33 [Annual reports issued 1 to 3 years after event year, published since 1986 in the Bulletin of Volcanology].










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