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Large Volcano Explocivity Index
http://www.allcountries.org/ranks/volcano_explocivity_ranks.html
SOURCE: Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History, Global Volcanism Program
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Known large-volume Holocene explosive eruptions with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 4 or larger.
"P" and "C" VEI codes refer to plinian or caldera-forming eruptions, respectively, of large, but unknown magnitudes.
See notes below the table for additional information


Rank
--------
VEI*
------
Volcano
----------------------
Location
-------------------------------------------
Date
---------------------------------
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-







































































7
7
7
7
7
7
6+
6+
6+
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5+
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4+
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
Santorini
Changbaishan
Crater Lake
Kikai
Kurile Lake
Tambora
Ambrym
Ilopango
Menengai
Aniakchak
Aniakchak
Apoyeque
Bardarbunga
Billy Mitchell
Black Peak
Ceboruco
Cerro Hudson
Cerro Hudson
Churchill
Churchill
Crater Lake
Dakataua
Fisher
Grimsvotn
Huaynaputina
Karymsky
Khangar
Krakatau
Ksudach
Long Island
Long Island
Lvinaya Past
Macauley Island
Masaya
Mashu
Novarupta
Okmok
Pago
Pago
Pago
Pinatubo
Pinatubo
Pinatubo
Pinatubo
Quilotoa
Rabaul
Raoul Island
Sakura-Jima
Santa Maria
St. Helens
Taal
Tao-Rusyr Caldera
Taupo
Taupo
Ulreung
Veniaminof
Avachinsky
Billy Mitchell
Cerro Azul
Cerro Hudson
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Hekla
Ksudach
Masaya
Opala
Sollipulli
St. Helens
Towada
Agua De Pau
Agua De Pau
Aguilera
Agung
Akutan
Antillanca Group
Antillanca Group
Apoyeque
Apoyeque
Asama
Askja
Askja
Atacazo
Atacazo
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Bezymianny
Campi Flegrei
Colima
Cosiguina
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cuicocha
Dana
El Chichon
El Chichon
El Chichon
El Chichon
Etna
Etna
Fisher
Fuji
Fuji
Fuji
Furnas
Furnas
Galunggung
Galunggung
Gamkonora
Guagua Pichincha
Hachijo-Jima
Hachijo-Jima
Haruna
Hayes
Hekla
Hekla
Hekla
Ibusuki
Ichinsky
Ilyinsky
Kaguyak
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Kelut
Kharimkotan
Khodutka
Kizimen
Kizimen
Komaga-Take
Komaga-Take
Ksudach
Ksudach
Ksudach
Llaima
Makushin
Masaya
Mashu
Mayor Island
Meager
Monte Burney
Monte Burney
Myoko
Nevado Del Tolima
Numazawa
Okataina
Okataina
Okataina
Okataina
Okataina
Oraefajokull
Pago
Pago
Parker
Pico De Orizaba
Pinatubo
Piton De La Fournaise
Pululagua
Puyehue Cordon Caulle
Puyehue Cordon Caulle
Raung
Sakura-Jima
Sakura-Jima
Seguam
Shikotsu
Shikotsu
Shikotsu
Shikotsu
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Soche
St. Helens
St. Helens
St. Helens
St. Helens
St. Helens
St. Helens
Taranaki [Egmont]
Taupo
Taupo
Taupo
Tavui
Tongariro
Tongariro
Tongariro
Tongariro
Tongkoko
Towada
Towada
Towada
Tungurahua
Ubinas
Usu
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Villarrica
Yantarni
Yucamane
Zheltovsky
Zheltovsky
Roundtop
Ambrym
Aniakchak
Cerro Bravo
Cotopaxi
El Chichon
Fuji
Glacier Peak
Grimsvotn
Haruna
Ibusuki
Izu-Tobu
Katla
Katla
Khodutka
Ksudach
Miyake-Jima
Momotombo
Nii-Jima
Okataina
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Suwanose-Jima
Taupo
Taupo
Tenerife
Tolbachik
Tolbachik
Tolbachik
Tolbachik
Tolbachik
Tolmachev Dol
Towada
Zavaritsky
Agrigan
Agua De Pau
Agung
Akan
Akita-Komaga-Take
Akita-Komaga-Take
Alaid
Alaid
Alamagan
Aniakchak
Aoga-Shima
Apoyeque
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Arenal
Asama
Asama
Asama
Augustine
Augustine
Augustine
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Avachinsky
Awu
Awu
Babuyan Claro
Bagana
Bandai
Bardarbunga
Bezymianny
Bezymianny
Bezymianny
Calbuco
Campi Flegrei
Campi Flegrei
Campi Flegrei
Campi Flegrei
Campi Flegrei
Campi Flegrei
Carran-Los Venados
Cayambe
Cayambe
Cayambe
Cerro Bravo
Cerro Bravo
Cerro Bravo
Cerro Bravo
Cerro Bravo
Cerro Bravo
Cerro Bravo
Chaiten
Chichinautzin
Chikurachki
Chikurachki
Chirpoi
Colima
Colima
Colima
Colima
Colima
Colima
Colima
Colo [Una Una]
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
Dona Juana
El Chichon
El Misti
Elovsky
Etna
Fernandina
Fonualei
Fuego
Fuego
Fuego
Fuego
Fuego
Fuego
Fuego
Fuji
Furnas
Furnas
Furnas
Galunggung
Grimsvotn
Grimsvotn
Guagua Pichincha
Guagua Pichincha
Hachijo-Jima
Hachijo-Jima
Haku-San
Hekla
Hekla
Hekla
Hekla
Hekla
Hekla
Hekla
Hekla
Hekla
Hudson Mountains
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Ibusuki
Inyo Craters
Inyo Craters
Iriomote-Jima
Isanotski
Izu-Tobu
Karymsky
Karymsky
Kasatochi
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Katla
Kelut
Kelut
Kelut
Kelut
Kelut
Kelut
Kikhpinych
Kikhpinych
Kilauea
Kinenin
Kirishima
Kirishima
Kirishima
Kizimen
Kliuchevskoi
Kliuchevskoi
Kliuchevskoi
Komaga-Take
Komaga-Take
Komaga-Take
Kozu-Shima
Krafla
Krasheninnikov
Krasheninnikov
Ksudach
Ksudach
Kuchinoerabu-Jima
Kuju
Kuju
Kuju
Kuju
Kuju
Kusatsu-Shirane
Lamington
Lascar
Llaima
Lolobau
Lolobau
Makian
Makian
Makian
Maly Semiachik
Manam
Manam
Mashu
Mashu
Mashu
Mayon
Mayon
Merapi
Michoacan-Guanajuato
Michoacan-Guanajuato
Michoacan-Guanajuato
Miyake-Jima
Miyake-Jima
Miyake-Jima
Miyake-Jima
Miyake-Jima
Momotombo
Mono Craters
Mono Craters
Myoko
Nevado Del Ruiz
Nevado Del Ruiz
Nevado Del Ruiz
Nevado Del Ruiz
Newberry
Newberry
Niigata-Yake-Yama
Niuafo'ou
Okmok
Oraefajokull
Oshima
Oshima
Oshima
Oshima
Oshima
Oshima
Oshima-Oshima
Pagan
Pavlof
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pico De Orizaba
Pico De Orizaba
Planchon-Peteroa
Rabaul
Rabaul
Rabaul
Raikoke
Raikoke
Rainier
Raoul Island
Raoul Island
Raoul Island
Raoul Island
Raoul Island
Raoul Island
Raoul Island
Raoul Island
Raung
Raung
Rausu
Redoubt
Reventador
Reykjanes
Reykjanes
Rincon De La Vieja
Ruang
Ruapehu
Sakura-Jima
Sakura-Jima
Sakura-Jima
Sakura-Jima
Sakura-Jima
San Martin
San Salvador
Sanbe
Santorini
Santorini
Sarychev Peak
Sarychev Peak
Serua
Sete Cidades
Sete Cidades
Sete Cidades
Sete Cidades
Shasta
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Shiveluch
Sinarka
Soufriere St. Vincent
Soufriere St. Vincent
South Sister
Spurr
Spurr
Sunset Crater
Suoh
Suwanose-Jima
Suwanose-Jima
Suwanose-Jima
Taal
Taal
Taal
Taal
Tacana
Takahara
Taranaki [Egmont]
Taupo
Taupo
Taupo
Taupo
Taupo
Taupo
Taupo
Taupo
Telica
Teon
Tiatia
Tolbachik
Towada
Tsurumi
Tungurahua
Tungurahua
Tungurahua
Tungurahua
Turrialba
Ulawun
Usu
Usu
Usu
Vestmannaeyjar
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vesuvius
Vulcano
Westdahl
Yake-Dake
Zao
Fuego
Augustine
Osorno
Akan
Aso
Aso
Atacazo
Atacazo
Azufral
Barva
Changbaishan
Changbaishan
Concepcion
Iliamna
Iliamna
Karkar
Khangar
Kirishima
Komaga-Take
Liamuiga
Liamuiga
Lolobau
Makushin
Meidob Volc Field
Meidob Volc Field
Meidob Volc Field
Meidob Volc Field
Merapi
Merapi
Meru
Okmok
Pago
Pago
Parker
Parker
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Pelee
Popocatepetl
Popocatepetl
Popocatepetl
Popocatepetl
Popocatepetl
Romeral
Rungwe
Soufrierre Guadeloupe
Soufrierre Guadeloupe
Tengger Caldera
The Quill
Nevado Del Tolima
Vesuvius
Villarrica
Chaiten
Dona Juana
Ilyinsky
Jebel Marra
Karkar
Karkar
Krakatau
Krasheninnikov
Ngozi
Paka
Pululagua
Ushishur
Wrangell
Greece
Eastern China
Oregon (USA)
Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)
Vanuatu
El Salvador
Eastern Africa
Alaska Peninsula
Alaska Peninsula
Nicaragua
Northeastern Iceland
Bougainville Island
Alaska Peninsula
Mexico
Southern Chile
Southern Chile
Eastern Alaska
Eastern Alaska
Oregon (USA)
New Britain
Aleutian Islands
Northeastern Iceland
Peru
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Indonesia
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Northeast of New Guinea
Northeast of New Guinea
Kuril Islands
Kermadec Islands
Nicaragua
Hokkaido (Japan)
Alaska Peninsula
Aleutian Islands
New Britain
New Britain
New Britain
Luzon (Philippines)
Luzon (Philippines)
Luzon (Philippines)
Luzon (Philippines)
Ecuador
New Britain
Kermadec Islands
Kyushu (Japan)
Guatemala
Washington (USA)
Luzon (Philippines)
Kuril Islands
New Zealand
New Zealand
Korea
Alaska Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Bougainville Island
Central Chile
Southern Chile
Ecuador
Ecuador
Southern Iceland
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Nicaragua
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Central Chile
Washington (USA)
Honshu (Japan)
Azores
Azores
Southern Chile
Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)
Aleutian Islands
Central Chile
Central Chile
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Honshu (Japan)
Northeastern Iceland
Northeastern Iceland
Ecuador
Ecuador
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Italy
Mexico
Nicaragua
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Alaska Peninsula
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Italy
Italy
Aleutian Islands
Honshu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Azores
Azores
Java (Indonesia)
Java (Indonesia)
Halmahera (Indonesia)
Ecuador
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Southwestern Alaska
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Kyushu (Japan)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Alaska Peninsula
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Java (Indonesia)
Kuril Islands
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Central Chile
Aleutian Islands
Nicaragua
Hokkaido (Japan)
New Zealand
Canada
Southern Chile
Southern Chile
Honshu (Japan)
Colombia
Honshu (Japan)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
Southeastern Iceland
Honshu (Japan)
New Britain
Philippines-Mindanao
Mexico
Luzon (Philippines)
Western Indian Ocean
Ecuador
Central Chile
Central Chile
Java (Indonesia)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Aleutian Islands
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Ecuador
Washington (USA)
Washington (USA)
Washington (USA)
Washington (USA)
Washington (USA)
Washington (USA)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Britain
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Honshu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Ecuador
Peru
Hokkaido (Japan)
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Central Chile
Alaska Peninsula
Peru
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Aleutian Islands
Vanuatu
Alaska Peninsula
Colombia
Ecuador
Mexico
Honshu (Japan)
Washington (USA)
Northeastern Iceland
Honshu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Nicaragua
Izu Islands (Japan)
New Zealand
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
New Zealand
New Zealand
Canary Islands
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Honshu (Japan)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Mariana Islands
Azores
Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
Mariana Islands
Alaska Peninsula
Izu Islands (Japan)
Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Honshu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Southwestern Alaska
Southwestern Alaska
Southwestern Alaska
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)
Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)
North of Luzon (Philippines)
Bougainville Island
Honshu (Japan)
Northeastern Iceland
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Southern Chile
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Central Chile
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Southern Chile
Mexico
Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Colombia
Mexico
Peru
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Italy
Galapagos Islands
Tonga Islands
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala
Honshu (Japan)
Azores
Azores
Azores
Java (Indonesia)
Northeastern Iceland
Northeastern Iceland
Ecuador
Ecuador
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Antarctica
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
California (USA)
California (USA)
Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
Aleutian Islands
Honshu (Japan)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Aleutian Islands
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Southern Iceland
Java (Indonesia)
Java (Indonesia)
Java (Indonesia)
Java (Indonesia)
Java (Indonesia)
Java (Indonesia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Hawaiian Islands
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Northeastern Iceland
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
Kyushu Japan
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
New Guinea
Northern Chile
Central Chile
New Britain
New Britain
Halmahera (Indonesia)
Halmahera (Indonesia)
Halmahera (Indonesia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Northeast of New Guinea
Northeast of New Guinea
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Luzon (Philippines)
Luzon (Philippines)
Java (Indonesia)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Nicaragua
California (USA)
California (USA)
Honshu (Japan)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Oregon (USA)
Oregon (USA)
Honshu (Japan)
Tonga Islands
Aleutian Islands
Southeastern Iceland
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Izu Islands (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Mariana Islands
Alaska Peninsula
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
Mexico
Mexico
Central Chile
New Britain
New Britain
New Britain
Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
Washington (USA)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
Java (Indonesia)
Java (Indonesia)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Aleutian Islands
Ecuador
Southwestern Iceland
Southwestern Iceland
Costa Rica
Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)
New Zealand
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Mexico
El Salvador
Honshu (Japan)
Greece
Greece
Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
Banda Sea
Azores
Azores
Azores
Azores
California (USA)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kuril Islands
West Indies
West Indies
Oregon (USA)
Southwestern Alaska
Southwestern Alaska
Arizona (USA)
Sumatra (Indonesia)
Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
Luzon (Philippines)
Luzon (Philippines)
Luzon (Philippines)
Luzon (Philippines)
Mexico
Honshu (Japan)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Banda Sea
Kuril Islands
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Honshu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador
Costa Rica
New Britain
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Southern Iceland
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Italy
Aleutian Islands
Honshu (Japan)
Honshu (Japan)
Guatemala
Southwestern Alaska
Southern Chile
Hokkaido (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Kyushu (Japan)
Ecuador
Ecuador
Colombia
Costa Rica
Eastern China
Eastern China
Nicaragua
Southwestern Alaska
Southwestern Alaska
Northeast of New Guinea
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Kyushu (Japan)
Hokkaido (Japan)
West Indies
West Indies
New Britain
Aleutian Islands
Northern Africa
Northern Africa
Northern Africa
Northern Africa
Java (Indonesia)
Java (Indonesia)
Eastern Africa
Aleutian Islands
New Britain
New Britain
Philippines-Mindanao
Philippines-Mindanao
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
West Indies
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Colombia
Eastern Africa
West Indies
West Indies
Java (Indonesia)
West Indies
Colombia
Italy
Central Chile
Southern Chile
Colombia
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Northern Africa
Northeast of New Guinea
Northeast of New Guinea
Indonesia
Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)
Eastern Africa
Eastern Africa
Ecuador
Kuril Islands
Eastern Alaska
1610 BC 14 years
1000 40 years
5677 BC 150 years
4350 BC (?)
6440 BC 25 years
1815 Apr 10
50 AD 100 years
450 AD 30 years
6050 BC (?)
5250 BC 1000 years
1645 BC 10 years
50 BC 100 years
1477 Feb (?)
1580 20 years
1900 BC 150 years
930 AD 200 years
4750 BC (?)
1890 BC (?)
60 AD 200 years
800 AD 100 years
5900 BC 50 years
800 AD 50 years
7420 BC 200 years
8230 BC 50 years
1600 Feb 19
6600 BC (?)
5700 BC 16 years
1883 Aug 27
240 AD 100 years
2040 BC 100 years
1660 20 years
7480 BC 50 years
4360 BC 200 years
4050 BC (?)
5550 BC 100 years
1912 Jun 6
100 BC 50 years
4000 BC 200 years
1370 BC 100 years
710 AD 75 years
7460 BC 150 years
3550 BC (?)
1050 BC 500 years
1991 Jun 15
1280 (?)
540 AD 100 years
250 BC 75 years
6200 BC 1000 years
1902 Oct 24
1860 BC (?)
3580 BC 200 years
5550 BC 75 years
1460 BC 40 years
230 AD 16 years
8750 BC
1750 BC (?)
5980 BC 100 years
1030 25 years
1932 Apr 10
1991 Aug 12
5820 BC 75 years
3880 BC 75 years
1100 BC 50 years
4900 BC (?)
150 AD (?)
610 AD 50 years
920 BC 75 years
1480 Jan 15 120 days
4150 BC (?)
2990 BC (?)
1563 Jun 28
1250 BC 150 years
1963 Mar 17
340 AD (?)
960 BC 150 years
230 BC 200 years
4160 BC 30 years
2550 BC 1000 years
1108 Aug 29
8910 BC 200 years
1875 Mar 29
2490 BC 40 years
320 BC 16 years
4340 BC 75 years
3200 BC 150 years
1500 BC (?)
1350 BC (?)
1956 Mar 30
2150 BC 500 years
1913 Jan 20
1835 Jan 20
4350 BC 75 years
3280 BC 500 years
2640 BC 200 years
2050 BC (?)
1130 75 years
1150 BC 150 years
1890 BC (?)
2030 BC 100 years
780 AD 100 years
1360 100 years
1982 Apr 3
1500 BC 50 years
122 BC
3170 BC 75 years
1350 BC (?)
930 BC (in or after)
1707 Dec 16
80 AD 100 years
1630 Sep 3
2250 BC 150 years
1822 Oct 8
1673 May 20
910 AD 100 years
4650 BC (?)
2050 BC (?)
550 AD 10 years
1550 BC (?)
5150 BC (?)
2310 BC 20 years
1104 Oct 15 45 days
2690 BC 75 years
5400 BC (?)
2850 BC (?)
3850 BC (?)
1262
1625 Sep 2
1721 May 11
1755 Oct 17
1586
1933 Jan 8
930 BC 100 years
8050 BC (?)
6400 BC 50 years
4600 BC 50 years
1640 Jul 31
7900 BC (?)
5200 BC (?)
1907 Mar 28 (?)
6880 BC 75 years
6100 BC 50 years
170 BC 100 years
1080 100 years
5060 BC 200 years
410 BC 200 years
7450 BC 500 years
2320 BC 100 years
4750 BC 300 years
1990 BC 200 years
3400 BC (?)
7560 BC 18 years
6060 BC 50 years
3580 BC 50 years
1310 12 years
1886 Jun 10
1362 Jun 5 4 days
310 AD 100 years
690 AD 100 years
1641 Jan 4
6710 BC 150 years
1450 50 years
2700 BC (?)
690 BC 150 years
5080 BC 150 years
860 AD 75 years
1593
6050 BC (?)
1471 Nov 3
7300 BC 1000 years
6950 BC (?)
550 BC (?)
1667 Sep 23
1739 Aug 19
7400 BC 150 years
7300 BC (?)
7150 BC (?)
6800 BC (?)
5500 BC (?)
4400 BC (?)
3650 BC (?)
3500 BC (?)
2620 BC 300 years
2100 BC (?)
2000 BC (?)
950 BC (?)
600 AD (?)
650 AD 40 years
1030 100 years
1650 10 years
1854 Feb 18
6650 BC (?)
2340 BC (?)
1770 BC 100 years
530 BC (?)
1482 Jan 15 120 days
1800 Jan 15 120 days
1980 May 18
1700 BC 100 years
9460 BC 200 years
9240 BC 75 years
8130 BC 200 years
5150 BC 1000 years
9650 BC
9450 BC
9350 BC
550 BC 200 years
1680
8250 BC
7250 BC (?)
915 AD Aug 17
1010 BC 100 years
1080 75 years
1663 Aug 16
6940 BC 100 years
2420 BC 40 years
79 AD Oct 24 (?)
472 AD Nov 5
1631 Dec 16
1810 BC 200 years
800 BC 500 years
1320 BC (?)
7050 BC 1000 years
3050 BC (?)
7600 BC 500 years
1951
1560 50 years
730 BC 75 years
1350 (?)
1982 Mar 28
1030 BC (?)
200 AD 50 years
1783 Jun 8
520 AD 10 years
660 AD (?)
1150 BC 50 years
1357 3 years
1918 Oct 12
1050 BC (in or before)
1000 50 years
950 BC 200 years
800 BC 50 years
886 AD Jun 29
1750 BC (?)
3200 BC (?)
2200 BC (?)
780 BC 300 years
500 AD (?)
580 AD (?)
1964 Nov 12
1600 (?)
1010 BC 200 years
200 BC (?)
80 BC 40 years
50 AD (?)
400 AD (?)
950 AD (?)
1000 (?)
1975 Jul 6
2650 BC (?)
750 BC (?)
850 BC (?)
1917 Apr 9
1290 BC (?)
1963 May 16
7050 BC (?)
8300 BC 300 years
7850 BC 200 years
1793 Feb
1981 Apr 30
870 AD 100 years
1931 May 11
600 BC 200 years
1050 BC 1000 years
5060 BC 150 years
3900 BC (?)
3350 BC (?)
2800 BC (?)
2250 BC (?)
1650 BC (?)
1450 BC (?)
1250 BC 200 years
380 BC 200 years
270 BC (?)
400 AD (?)
550 AD (?)
650 AD 100 years
700 AD (?)
750 AD 50 years
1020 (?)
1030 (?)
1400 (?)
170 BC 200 years
2550 BC 500 years
350 AD 10 years
1783 Aug 3
1540 100 years
1883 Oct 6
1976 Jan 22 (?)
4550 BC 200 years
4460 BC 100 years
3790 BC 100 years
2530 BC 300 years
1827 Jun 27
1926 Apr 5
1945 Feb 25
1812 Aug 6
1966 Aug 12
1831
1952 Feb 29
1888 Jul 15
870 AD (?)
450 BC (?)
700 AD 50 years
950 AD (?)
1893 Jan 10
8480 BC 100 years
6650 BC 100 years
2500 BC (?)
2000 BC 150 years
1870 BC 50 years
1650 BC (?)
1955 Jul 27
1040 (?)
1290 (?)
1570 (?)
4280 BC 150 years
1310 BC 150 years
1050 BC 200 years
750 AD 150 years
1050 75 years
1330 75 years
1720 150 years
2008 May 2
7370 BC 300 years
1690 10 years
1986 Nov 20
1712 Dec 31 365 days
2370 BC 150 years
1585 Jan 10
1606 Nov 25
1606 Dec 13
1622 Jun 8
1818 Feb 15
1890 Feb 16
1983 Jul 23
1050 BC (?)
400 BC (?)
230 BC 200 years
70 AD 150 years
T 150 AD (?)
180 AD 100 years
740 AD 75 years
770 AD 75 years
1532 Nov 15
1534 Jun
1744 Nov 30
1768 Apr 4
1877 Jun 26
1899 Nov 13
1190 150 years
80 BC 75 years
7550 BC 500 years
1787 Jul 18
1968 Jun 11
1846 Jun 11 (?)
1581 Dec 26
1582 Jan 14
1717 Aug 27
1737 Aug 27
1857 Jan 15
1880 Jun 28
1974 Oct 17
800 AD Apr 11
840 AD 100 years
1170 100 years
1441 2 years
1982 May 17
1873 Jan 8
1903 May 28
70 AD 75 years
1660 Oct 27
8020 BC 1000 years
2450 BC 500 years
G 200 BC (?)
1550 BC (?)
1158 Jan 19
1300 Jul 11
1510 Jul 25
1597 Jan 3
1693 Feb 13
1766 Apr 5
1845 Sep 2
1947 Mar 29
210 BC 200 years
2010 BC (?)
1780 BC (?)
1500 BC (?)
650 BC (?)
270 BC (?)
80 BC (?)
130 AD (?)
150 AD (?)
600 AD (?)
720 AD (?)
770 AD (?)
874 AD Mar 29
885 AD Aug 29
600 AD 75 years
1380 50 years
1924 Oct 31
1825 Mar 10
2100 BC 100 years
3200 BC (?)
2250 BC (?)
2008 Aug 7
1920 BC (?)
1440 BC 40 years
850 BC 50 years
920 AD
934 AD 2 years
1210 (?)
1245
1416
1440
1500 (?)
1550 (?)
1580 Aug 11
1612 Oct 12
1660 Nov 3
1860 May 8
1641
1826 Oct 11
1919 May 19
1951 Aug 31
1966 Apr 26
1990 Feb 10
2780 BC 25 years
1350 (?)
1790 Nov (?)
850 AD 50 years
4350 BC (?)
2650 BC (?)
788 AD Apr 18
4450 BC (?)
1829 Sep 9
1931 Mar 25
1990 Jan 30
1694 Jul 4
1856 Sep 25
1929 Jun 17
838 AD Aug 2 (?)
650 BC (?)
6000 BC 50 years
5800 BC 50 years
3000 BC (?)
1750 (?)
1933 Dec 24
9160 BC 1000 years
3780 BC 500 years
2440 BC 300 years
990 BC 1000 years
100 BC 300 years
1120 BC 150 years
1951 Jan 21
1993 Apr 19
1640 Feb
1100 30 years
1911
1646 Jul 19
1760 Sep 22
1861 Dec 28
1550 (?)
1919 Aug 11
2005 Jan 27
3550 BC 40 years
2050 BC 40 years
150 AD 100 years
1814 Feb 1
1897 Jun 25
1872 Apr 15
1759 Sep 29
1764
1943 Feb 20
6450 BC 500 years
2900 BC 500 years
260 AD 500 years
850 AD (?)
1763 Aug 17
1605
810 AD 300 years
1350 20 years
2750 BC 100 years
850 BC (?)
200 BC 100 years
1350 (?)
1595 Mar 12
490 AD 100 years
690 AD 100 years
887 AD
1886 Aug 31
2008 Jul 12
1727 Aug 3
340 AD 200 years
680 AD (?)
854 AD (?) Sep 14 (?)
886 AD (?) Jun 29 (?)
1183 (?)
1421 May 14
1741 Aug 29
1981 May 15
1786
8210 BC 200 years
6610 BC 150 years
3430 BC 75 years
2660 BC 200 years
590 BC 200 years
10 AD 50 years
350 AD 75 years
1340 50 years
1902 May 2
1902 May 8
7030 BC 50 years
2300 BC 75 years
1762 Dec 3
1937 May 29
1994 Sep 19
2006 Oct 7
1778
1924 Feb 15
250 BC 200 years
2000 BC 100 years
1200 BC 150 years
100 AD (?)
400 AD (?)
550 AD (?)
850 AD (?)
1630 50 years
1720 50 years
1638
1817 Jan 16
550 AD 100 years
2009 Mar 22
2002 Nov 3
1211 Aug 31 30 days
1226 Jul 15 45 days
1820 BC 150 years
2002 Sep 25
7840 BC (in or before)
3050 BC (?)
2900 BC (?)
764 AD Jan
1779 Nov 8
1914 Jan 12
1793 Mar 2
1200 (?)
1920 BC (?)
726 AD Jul 15 45 days
1650 Sep 27
1946 Nov 9
2009 Jun 11
1693 Jun 4
3050 BC (?)
90 AD 100 years
380 AD 300 years
1444 (?)
7650 BC 100 years
8350 BC
8200 BC
8100 BC
7950 BC (?)
7700 BC (?)
7630 BC (?)
7600 BC (?)
7500 BC (?)
6600 BC (?)
6400 BC 150 years
6380 BC (?)
6350 BC (?)
1700 BC (?)
500 BC (?)
300 BC (?)
100 AD (?)
250 AD (?)
970 AD (?)
1430 (?)
2001 May 22
1872
1812 Apr 27
1902 May 6
350 BC (?)
1953 Jul 9
1992 Jun 27
1075 25 years
1933 Jul 10
1813
1877
1889 Oct 2
1716 Sep 24
1749 Aug 11 (?)
1754 Nov 28
1965 Sep 28
70 AD 100 years
4570 BC (?)
1655 (?)
9210 BC
4700 BC (?)
4100 BC (?)
3170 BC 200 years
3070 BC (?)
2900 BC (?)
2600 BC (?)
1050 BC (?)
1529
1660 Feb
1973 Jul 14
900 AD (?)
6250 BC (?)
200 BC 50 years
7750 BC (?)
730 AD 200 years
1886 Jan 11
1918 Apr 5
40 AD 50 years
2000 Sep 29
1769 Jan 23
1822 Mar 12
1853 Apr 22
8050 BC (?)
1550 BC 75 years
1430 BC 300 years
880 BC 50 years
512 AD Jul 8
685 AD Feb
968 AD Dec 1
1906 Apr 8
183 BC
1795
350 BC (?)
300 AD 200 years
1932 Jan 21
1986 Mar 27
420 AD 100 years
50 BC (?)
1700 BC 50 years
950 BC (?)
6910 BC (in or before)
3490 BC 100 years
930 BC (?)
6050 BC 1000 years
2160 BC 100 years
180 BC 75 years
770 BC 50 years
5050 BC (?)
2050 BC (?)
730 AD (?)
9500 BC 300 years
1235 Jan 25
4350 BC (?)
2010 BC 150 years
160 AD 200 years
1905
3650 BC 1000 years
6050 BC 1000 years
4150 BC 1000 years
3050 BC (?)
3000 BC (?)
1180 BC 75 years
20 AD 300 years
5850 BC (?)
6310 BC 500 years
1550 (?)
1800 (?)
1920 BC 40 years
1380 75 years
6220 BC 200 years
5500 BC 200 years
3820 BC (?)
3500 BC 200 years
2430 BC (?)
440 BC (?)
200 BC (?)
50 AD (?)
130 AD (?)
300 AD (?)
450 AD (?)
890 AD 100 years
7150 BC (?)
5150 BC (?)
3010 BC 200 years
200 BC 300 years
823 AD Mar 1
5950 BC 500 years
2400 BC (?)
1370 150 years
1440 100 years
830 BC 50 years
6140 BC 200 years
7800 BC 300 years
203 AD
6690 BC (?)
7420 BC 75 years
2550 BC 150 years
5700 BC 50 years
2000 BC (?)
7140 BC 150 years
520 AD 100 years
416 AD
150 BC (?)
8250 BC
7550 BC 1000 years
450 BC 150 years
7450 BC 50 years
190 AD 200 years



NOTES:

VEI =Volcanic Explosivity Index

The reported size, or "bigness," of historical eruptions depends very much on both the experience and vantage point of the observer. To meet the need for a meaningful magnitude measure that can be easily applied to eruption sizes, Newhall and Self (1982) integrated quantitative data with the subjective descriptions of observers, resulting in the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). It is a simple 0-to-8 index of increasing explosivity, with each successive integer representing about an order of magnitude increase. Criteria for VEI assignments are shown in the table below, which is followed by examples of eruptions in different VEI size classes. VEI assignments have been updated from those in Newhall and Self (1982) and Simkin and Siebert (1994).

Volcanic Explocivity Index table

Eruptive Volumes

Accurate measurement of eruptive volumes requires careful field work and is often subject to unresolvable uncertainties. Consequently, volume information is available for only a small proportion of eruptions. Volume data is displayed in two different formats. Because of space constraints in the Eruptive History table view, only the order of magnitude (in cubic meters) of calculated lava and/or tephra volumes is displayed. An entry of 8/9 under the L/T header, for example, indicates an eruption with 108 m3 of lava and 109 m3 of tephra. Because only the exponent is displayed, this means that the eruption volume may be nearly 10 times larger than shown. The Eruptive History expanded view, in contrast, has room to display the full volume data, including in some cases uncertainty ranges. It is important to note that tephra and lava volumes are listed without correction for vesicularity (the void space occupied by air bubbles, or vesicles), the extraneous fragments of older rock included accidentally in the deposit, or compaction of ash layers with time. The tephra volumes displayed, therefore, are bulk tephra volumes, and not Dense Rock Equivalents (DRE), or volumes of new magma erupted.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Data Sources

The volcano and eruption data of this digital version of Volcanoes of the World (Siebert and Simkin, 2002-) are updated from its hardcopy predecessor (Simkin and Siebert, 1994) and originate from more than 3500 references. These references are accessible in this website through both regional and volcano-specific listings. The basic building block of the Smithsonian's volcano database is the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW), a series of regional volcano catalogs published by IAVCEI beginning in 1951. In order to more easily locate these important compilations (which contain many primary references not listed in our compilation), these IAVCEI regional catalog references are bolded in our regional and volcano-specific listings.

The listings appearing here are not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography of references for a particular volcano or region, but represent those references that are cited as the sources of the volcano and eruption data in Volcanoes of the World. Several other global compilations have been helpful: among them are IAVCEI data sheets of post-Miocene volcanoes (1975-80), Volcano Letter reports of the U S Geological Survey from 1926-1955 (compiled in Fiske et al., 1987), independent compilations by Latter (1975) and Gushchenko (1979), and a caldera compilation by Newhall and Dzurisin (1988). Major sources of eruption data subsequent to or supplementing the CAVW can be found in a series of annual summaries by Gustav Hantke published between 1939 and 1962 (mostly in the IAVCEI publication Bulletin of Volcanology), and annual eruption compilations by the Volcanological Society of Japan (1960-96) and Smithsonian Institution reports (since 1968) in various formats, compiled in McClelland et al., (1985) and in the

Activity Reports section of this website (Venzke et al., 2002-). The data sources referenced focus almost exclusively on Holocene volcanism and emphasize papers on volcanic stratigraphy and physical volcanology. Abstracts are typically not referenced unless they contain significant data not in other sources. As with the Georef bibliographic database, diacritical marks are not used.

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References

CAVW Editors (1951-1975). Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World. Rome: International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, 22 volumes.

Fiske R S, Simkin T, Nielsen E A (eds) (1987). The Volcano Letter. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Inst Press, 1536 p (Reprinting of 1926-1955 issues of the U S Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory).

Gushchenko I I (1979). Eruptions of Volcanoes of the World: A Catalog. Moscow: Nauka Pub, Acad Sci USSR Far Eastern Sci Center, 474 p (in Russian).

Hantke G (1939-62). Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit. Eruption summaries published in the Zeitschrift Deutsche Geologie Gesellschafft in 1939 and the Bulletin of Volcanology in 1951, 1953, 1955, 1959, and 1962.

IAVCEI (1973-80). Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI data sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chem Earth's Interior.

Latter J H (1975). The history and geography of active and dormant volcanoes. A worldwide catalogue and index of active and potentially active volcanoes, with an outline of their eruptions. Unpublished manuscript.

McClelland L, Simkin T, Summers M, Nielsen E, and Stein T C (eds.) (1989). Global Volcanism 1975-1985. Prentice-Hall and American Geophysical Union, 653 p.

Newhall C G, and Dzurisin D (1988). Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Newhall C G, and Self S (1982). The volcanic explosivity index (VEI): an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism. J Geophys Res (Oceans & Atmospheres), 87: 1231-38.

Siebert L, and Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. Smithsonian Institution. Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-3, (http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/).

Simkin T, and Siebert L (1994). Volcanoes of the World, 2nd edition. Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Smith W H F, and Sandwell D T (1997). Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science, 277: 1957-1962.

U S Geological Survey (2002). GTOPO30. Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), U S Geol Surv EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.

Venzke E, Wunderman R W, McClelland L, Simkin, T, Luhr, J F, Siebert L, and Mayberry G (eds.) (2002-). Global Volcanism, 1968 to the Present. Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-4 (http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/).

Volcanological Society of Japan (1960-96). Bulletin of Volcanic Eruptions, no 1-33 [Annual reports issued 1 to 3 years after event year, published since 1986 in the Bulletin of Volcanology].



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